Li Yüan-hung

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Li Yüan-hung

(lē yüän-ho͝ong), 1864–1928, president of China (1916–17, 1922–23). A brigade commander under the Ch'ing dynasty, Li was compelled by army rebels to become military governor of Hubei prov. in the republican revolution of 1911. Elected vice president (1912) of the new republican government, Li assumed the presidency (1916) on the death of Yüan Shih-kaiYüan Shih-kai
, 1859–1916, president of China (1912–16). From 1885 to 1894 he was the Chinese resident in Korea, then under Chinese suzerainty. He supported the dowager empress, Tz'u Hsi, against the reform movement (1898) of Emperor Kuang Hsü, and she
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 but was soon overshadowed by Tuan Ch'i-juiTuan Ch'i-jui
, 1865–1936, Chinese general and political leader. He studied military science in Germany and held high positions in the army under the Ch'ing dynasty.
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, premier and leader of the Anfu warlordwarlord,
in modern Chinese history, autonomous regional military commander. In the political chaos following the death (1916) of republican China's first president and commander in chief, Yüan Shih-kai, central authority fell to the provincial military governors and
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 clique. He was restored as president (1922) by the rival Chihli military clique in an unsuccessful attempt to conciliate the KuomintangKuomintang
[Chin.,=national people's party] (KMT), Chinese and Taiwanese political party. Sung Chiao-jen organized the party in 1912, under the nominal leadership of Sun Yat-sen, to succeed the Revolutionary Alliance.
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 party.

Li Yüan-Hung

 

Born Oct. 19, 1864, in the district of Huang-p’i, province of Hupeh; died June 3, 1928, in Tientsin. Chinese military and political figure.

On the eve of the bourgeois Hsin-hai Revolution (1911–13), Li Yüan-hung commanded a brigade of the Chinese New Army, outfitted and trained along European lines. On Oct. 11, 1911, during the Wuch’ang rebellion, revolutionary soldiers and officers forced Li Yüan-hung to head a military-revolutionary government in the province of Hupeh. His policy there favored the interests of the Chinese counterrevolution. He was vice-president in the governments of Sun Yat-sen and Yüan Shi-k’ai (from Jan. 3, 1912, to June 6, 1916). He was president of the Chinese Republic from June 7, 1916, to July 1, 1917, and from June 11, 1922, to June 13, 1923. In 1923 he retired from politics.