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a junior military officer rank in the armed forces of the USSR (introduced on Sept. 22, 1935) and in the majority of foreign states.
The title “lieutenant” originated in France in the 15th century to describe the post of deputy chief of a detachment, or deputy captain. In the second half of the 17th century lieutenant became a rank in the army and navy in France and other countries. The Russian Navy had the rank of lieutenant from 1701 to 1917.
(poruchik). (1) A junior officer’s rank in the Russian Army above the rank of sublieutenant (podporuchik). The rank was instituted in the 17th century. The corresponding rank in cossack units was sotnik
(2) In the Polish Army (porucznik, “first lieutenant”) and in the Czechoslovak People’s Army (poručík, “lieutenant”), the rank of a junior officer.