Likert scale

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Likert scale

a technique for measuring the strength of a person's ATTITUDE or predisposition towards a person, object, idea, phenomenon, etc. (Likert, 1932). Likert scales assume that attitudes lie on a simple, dichotomous continuum running from one extreme position through neutral to the other extreme, for example, capitalism/ communism, religion/atheism.

Likert scales are subjective in nature, insofar as they are based on the replies given by individuals to a battery of questions. In constructing such scales a sample of respondents from the target population are presented with a large number of statements thought to have a bearing on the subject. For example, to construct a scale to measure the strength of religious belief respondents may be presented with statements such as: ‘The laws relating to blasphemy are outdated and should be abolished’; ‘We can be almost certain that human beings evolved from lower animals’; ‘Every woman has the right to terminate an unwanted pregnancy if she so wishes’, ‘The miracles in the Bible happened just as they are described there’.

Respondents are asked to indicate to what extent they agree or disagree with each statement, using a three-, five- or seven-point scale. A five-point scale is generally considered to be best. The replies given to each question are then coded (see CODING) so that a high score indicates a strong disposition towards the subject under consideration and a low score indicates its polar opposite. Finally, the Likert scale is constructed using those items whose scores correlate most closely with the overall scores, i.e. the scale has internal consistency and each item has predictability. This final form of the scale can then be administered to the population for whom it is intended.

The main problem with constructing Likert scales is that of ensuring that the individual items in the scale tap one dimension only. In measuring religious attitudes, as discussed above, for example, people's opinions about abortion are determined by many factors of which the individual's religious persuasion is only one. Various statistical techniques, such as FACTOR ANALYSIS have been devised which enable researchers to calculate the internal consistency of their scales. See also ATTITUDE SCALE AND MEASUREMENT, GUTTMAN SCALE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Likert scales are not often used in health sciences librarian research.
An example of one of the items in the questionnaire and the accompanying Likert scales is depicted in Fig.
Therefore it is impossible to state that judges are not needed when developing Likert scales since the scales used to create the Likert scoring technique had previously used the judge rating technique.
The fourth edition of this step-by-step guide to conducting surveys has been expanded to include new statistic software programs, new research design models and additional information on Likert scales, cross tabs and how to download data from online surveys.
The participants were rated by pairs of male and female interviewers on Likert scales of facial, bodily, and overall attractiveness.
The survey participants were rated by pairs of male and female interviewers on Likert scales of facial, bodily, and overall attractiveness.
With Activexpression, students can express themselves through a full range of response types--multiple choice, true/false, yes/no, multiple response, put in order, gap fill words, Likert scales, confidence checking and alphanumeric response.
The questionnaire used Likert scales of Strongly Agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree, Strongly Disagree, or Not Applicable (N/A).
For example, prominent measures of self-esteem, depression, alienation, locus of control, ethnocentrism, racism, religiosity, spirituality, and homophobia have all used Likert scales to make operational the underlying latent construct (Hill & Hood, 1999; Raja & Stokes, 1998; Robinson, Shaver, & Wrightsman, 1991).
Data for scores from the likert scales were hand-scored and calculated.
Participants responded on 5-point Likert scales indicating the extent of their agreement from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree with each of the items.
The data tools used were: spelling pre and post tests, teacher made tests, checklists, Likert scales, anecdotal records, writing artifacts, teacher student interviews, and a teacher journal.