lingua franca


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lingua franca

(lĭng`gwə frăng`kə), an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another. Such a language frequently is used primarily for commercial purposes. Examples are the several varieties of the hybrid pidgin English (see pidginpidgin
, a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean
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); Swahili, a native language of E Africa (see Swahili languageSwahili language,
member of the Bantu group of African languages (see African languages and Bantu languages). Swahili is spoken by 30 million people, chiefly in Tanzania, Kenya, Congo (Kinshasa), Burundi, and Uganda, and serves as a lingua franca for additional millions in E
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); Chinook jargon, a lingua franca formerly used in the American Northwest that was a mixture of Chinook, other Native American languages, English, and French; and a variety of Malay (called bazaar Malay), which served as a compromise language in the area of British Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, and neighboring regions (see Malayo-Polynesian languagesMalayo-Polynesian languages
, sometimes also called Austronesian languages
, family of languages estimated at from 300 to 500 tongues and understood by approximately 300 million people in Madagascar; the Malay Peninsula; Indonesia and New Guinea; the Philippines;
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). The original lingua franca was a tongue actually called Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that was employed for commerce in the Mediterranean area during the Middle Ages. Now extinct, it had Italian as its base with an admixture of words from Spanish, French, Greek, and Arabic. The designation "Lingua Franca" [language of the Franks] came about because the Arabs in the medieval period used to refer to Western Europeans in general as "Franks." Occasionally the term lingua franca is applied to a fully established formal language; thus formerly it was said that French was the lingua franca of diplomacy.

Bibliography

See H. R. Kahane et al., The Lingua Franca in the Levant (1958); R. A. Hall, Jr., Pidgin and Creole Languages (1966); B. Heine, Status and Use of African Lingua Francas (1970).

lingua franca

It implies a common, or standard, language. The term is used in the information industry to refer to the most-widely used format, protocol or command language for a particular purpose. Its actual meaning is "Frankish language," which is spoken in various Mediterranean ports and is a combination of Italian, Spanish, French, Greek, Arabic and Turkish. Its original meaning also implies a hybrid or mixture of languages.
References in periodicals archive ?
Widely considered the lingua franca of instant messaging, XMPP is an emerging Internet standard for real-time messaging and presence that grew out of the Jabber open-source project, and that continues to be developed within both the IETF and the broader Jabber community.
This collection of 19 articles examines how English has become a global language and, in particular, how the expansion of the European Union has promoted English as the lingua franca.
Davies also worked at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as science editor and program administrator and has written for numerous publications including The Times, New Scientist, THES, Newton, Lingua Franca and Prospect.
During the heyday of the Soviet Union, Russian was the lingua franca from Prague to Hanoi.
The Manila language which is the De Facto Lingua Franca is the language used by two people with different languages.
It is also our responsibility to patronize our national language which is our lingua franca and represents our identity at the international interactions.
The last concert in the framework of the ninth International Pharos Contemporary Music Festival is set for Friday at the Shoe Factory in Nicosia, when the Lingua Franca Ensemble will perform under the name Soundscapes of the eastern Mediterranean.
Bilkisu Labaran,Editorial Lead of the new BBC service said: "It's an informal lingua franca.
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