List of Popes of the Roman Catholic Church

Related articles: pope pope:
see papacy; Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, table; Roman Catholic Church.
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, papacy papacy
, office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church. He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome (the Holy See) to its first bishop, St. Peter.
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Popes of the Roman Catholic Church
In the following list, the date of election, rather than of consecration, is given. Before St. Victor I (189), dates may err by one year. Antipopes—i.e., those men whose elections have been declared uncanonical—are indicated.
St. PeterPeter, Saint,
d. A.D. 64?, most prominent of the Twelve Apostles, listed first in the Gospels, and traditionally the first bishop of Rome. His original name was Simon, but Jesus gave him the nickname Cephas [Aramaic, = rock], which was translated into Greek as Petros [Gr.
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, d. 64? or 67?
St. LinusLinus, Saint
, d. A.D. 76?, pope (A.D. 67?–A.D. 76?), martyr, an Italian; successor of St. Peter and predecessor of St. Cletus (or Anacletus). Nothing is known of his life, but he has been (as early as 189) identified with the biblical Linus. Feast: Sept. 23.
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, 67?–76?
St. CletusCletus or Anacletus, Saint
, d. A.D. 88?, pope (A.D. 76?–A.D. 88?), martyr, a Roman; successor of St. Linus and predecessor of St. Clement I. Feast: Apr. 26.
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, or Anacletus, 76?–88?
St. Clement IClement I, Saint,
or Clement of Rome
, d. A.D. 97?, pope (A.D. 88?–A.D. 97?), martyr; successor of St. Cletus. He may have known the apostles Peter and Paul and was a highly esteemed figure in the church.
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, 88?–97?
St. Evaristus, 97?–105?
St. Alexander I, 105?–115?
St. Sixtus I, 115?–125?
St. Telesphorus, 125?–136?
St. Hyginus, 136?–140?
St. Pius I, 140?–155?
St. Anicetus, 155?–166?
St. Soter, 166?–175?
St. Eleutherius, 175?–189?
St. Victor I, 189–99
St. Zephyrinus, 199–217
St. Calixtus ICalixtus I, Callixtus I, or Callistus I, Saint
, c.160–c.222, pope (217–222), a Roman; successor of St. Zephyrinus.
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, 217–22
antipope: St. HippolytusHippolytus, Saint
[Gr.,=loosed horse], d. c.236, first antipope (c.217–235), theologian, and martyr. Probably a disciple of St. Irenaeus, he became the most astute theologian in the Roman Church of his time—his work was similar in breadth to that of Origen and he
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, 217–35
St. Urban I, 222–30
St. Pontian, 230–35
St. Anterus, 235–36
St. FabianFabian, Saint
, pope (236–50), a Roman; successor of St. Anterus and predecessor of St. Cornelius. He recast the ecclesiastical organization in Rome. Fabian was martyred under Decius. Feast: Jan. 20.
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, 236–50
St. CorneliusCornelius, Saint
, d. 253, pope (251–253); successor of St. Fabian. His rule was marked by the support of St. Cyprian and the opposition of the antipope Novatian, and by the problem of readmitting to the church Christians who apostatized during persecution.
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, 251–53
antipope: Novatian, 251
St. Lucius I, 253–54
St. Stephen I, 254–57
St. Sixtus II, 257–58
St. Dionysius, 259–68
St. Felix I, 269–74
St. Eutychian, 275–83
St. Caius, 283–96
St. Marcellinus, 296–304
St. Marcellus I, c.308–309
St. Eusebius, 309–c.310
St. Miltiades, or Melchiades, 311–14
St. Sylvester ISylvester I, Saint,
pope (314–35), a Roman; successor of St. Miltiades (St. Melchiades). He was pope under the reign of Emperor Constantine I, who built for him the Lateran and other churches. St.
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, 314–35
St. Marcus, 336
St. Julius IJulius I, Saint,
pope (337–52), a Roman; successor of St. Marcus. In the controversy over Arianism, when both sides appealed to him for support, he convened a synod at Rome (340), at which were present St.
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, 337–52
Liberius, 352–66
antipope: FelixFelix,
Roman deacon, antipope (355–56). Emperor Constantius II, an Arian, set him up to replace Liberius. He is wrongly known as Felix II.
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, 355–65
St. Damasus IDamasus I, Saint
, c.305–384, pope (366–84), a Spaniard; successor of Liberius. His election was opposed by the Arian Ursinus (antipope 366–67). The Roman emperor Valentinian I had Ursinus exiled and decreed that all religious cases must come before the pope.
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, 366–84
antipope: Ursinus, 366–67
St. Siricius, 384–99
St. Anastasius I, 399–401
St. Innocent IInnocent I, Saint,
d. 417, pope (401–17), an Italian; successor of St. Anastasius I. A powerful champion of papal supremacy in the entire Church, he upheld St. John Chrysostom and condemned Pelagius. His 36 surviving decretal letters are an important source for canon law.
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, 401–17
St. Zosimus, 417–18
St. Boniface I, 418–22
antipope: Eulalius, 418–19
St. Celestine ICelestine I, Saint
, d. 432, pope (422–32), an Italian; successor of St. Boniface I. The opposition of St. Cyril of Alexandria to Nestorianism inspired both sides to appeal to the pope, who judged that Nestorius should be excommunicated if he refused to retract.
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, 422–32
St. Sixtus III, 432–40
St. Leo I, 440–61
St. Hilary, 461–68
St. Simplicius, 468–83
St. Felix III (or II), 483–92
St. Gelasius IGelasius I, Saint
, d. 496, pope (492–96); successor of St. Felix III (also known as Felix II). He was a firm upholder of the papal supremacy in a dispute with Anastasius, the Byzantine emperor.
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, 492–96
Anastasius II, 496–98
St. Symmachus, 498–514
antipope: Lawrence, 498–505
St. Hormisdas, 514–23
St. John I, 523–26
St. Felix IV (or III) 526–30
Boniface II, 530–32
pope or antipope: Dioscurus, 530
John II, 533–35
St. Agapetus I, 535–36
St. SilveriusSilverius, Saint
, d. 537, pope (536–37), an Italian; successor of St. Agapetus I. The son of Pope Hormisdas, who had been married before taking orders, St. Silverius was elected pope at the instance of the Ostrogothic king, Theodahad, although Vigilius, as Agapetus'
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, 536–37
VigiliusVigilius
, pope (537–55), a Roman; successor of St. Silverius. Empress Theodora exiled Silverius and made Vigilius pope in the expectation that he would compromise with the Monophysites. After Silverius' death Vigilius' pontificate was legalized.
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, 537–55
Pelagius I, 556–61
John III, 561–74
Benedict I, 575–79
Pelagius II, 579–90
St. Gregory IGregory I, Saint
(Saint Gregory the Great), c.540–604, pope (590–604), a Roman; successor of Pelagius II. A Doctor of the Church, he was distinguished for his spiritual and temporal leadership. His feast is celebrated on Mar. 12.
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, 590–604
Sabinian, 604–6
Boniface III, 607
St. Boniface IV, 608–15
St. Deusdedit, or Adeodatus I, 615–18
Boniface V, 619–25
Honorius IHonorius I
, pope (625–38), an Italian; successor of Boniface V. He showed great interest in the church in Spain and the British Isles, and he did a great deal to reform the education of the clergy.
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, 625–38
Severinus, 640
John IV, 640–42
Theodore I, 642–49
St. Martin IMartin I, Saint,
d. 655?, pope (649–55?), an Italian, b. Todi; successor of Theodore I. On his accession he summoned a great council at the Lateran, as St. Maximus had urged, to deal with Monotheletism, discussion of which had been forbidden by Byzantine Emperor Constans
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, 649–55
St. Eugene I, 654–57
St. Vitalian, 657–72
Adeodatus II, 672–76
Donus, 676–78
St. Agatho, 678–81
St. Leo II, 682–83
St. Benedict II, 684–85
John V, 685–86
Conon, 686–87
antipope: Theodore, 687
antipope: Paschal, 687
St. Sergius I, 687–701
John VI, 701–5
John VII, 705–7
Sisinnius, 708
Constantine, 708–15
St. Gregory IIGregory II, Saint,
d. 731, pope (715–31), a Roman; successor of Constantine. When Byzantine Emperor Leo III tried to impose iconoclasm in Italy by an imperial edict, Gregory answered that the emperor could not decide tenets of faith.
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, 715–31
St. Gregory III, 731–41
St. ZachariasZacharias or Zachary, Saint
, pope (741–52), a Calabrian Greek; successor of St. Gregory III. He was the first pope after Gregory the Great not to seek confirmation of his election from the Byzantine emperor.
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, 741–52
Stephen II, 752 (never consecrated)
Stephen IIStephen II,
d. 757, pope (752–57), successor of Pope St. Zacharias. When Rome was threatened by the Lombard king Aistulf, Stephen went to Gaul and appealed to Pepin the Short for help. He became the first pope to cross the Alps.
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 (or III), 752–57
St. Paul I, 757–67
antipope: Constantine, 767–69
antipope: Philip, 768
Stephen III (or IV), 768–72
Adrian IAdrian I,
d. 795, pope (772–95), a Roman; successor of Stephen IV. At Adrian's urging, Charlemagne crossed the Alps and defeated the Lombard king, Desiderius, who had annexed papal territory. That defeat marked the end of the Lombard kingdom.
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, 772–95
St. Leo IIILeo III, Saint,
pope (795–816), a Roman; successor of Adrian I. He was attacked about the face and eyes by members of Adrian's family, who hoped to render him unfit for the papacy. Leo recovered and fled (799) to Charlemagne's protection at Paderborn.
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, 795–816
Stephen IV (or V), 816–17
St. Paschal I, 817–24
Eugene II, 824–27
Valentine, 827
Gregory IV, 827–44
antipope: John, 844
Sergius II, 844–47
St. Leo IVLeo IV, Saint,
d. 855, pope (847–55), a Roman; successor of Sergius II. He had seen the Saracen attack on Rome (846), and to prevent its recurrence he fortified the city and its suburbs.
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, 847–55
Benedict III, 855–58
antipope: Anastasius, 855
St. Nicholas INicholas I, Saint,
c.825–867, pope (858–67), a Roman; successor of Benedict III. He was a vigorous and politically active pope who arbitrated both temporal and religious disputes.
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, 858–67
Adrian II, 867–72
John VIIIJohn VIII,
d. 882, pope (872–82), a Roman; successor of Adrian II. John strenuously opposed the activities of St. Ignatius of Constantinople in Bulgaria. When Ignatius died, John recognized Photius as patriarch and called the council (879–80) that momentarily
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, 872–82
Marinus I, 882–84
St. Adrian III, 884–85
Stephen V (or VI), 885–91
FormosusFormosus
, c.816–896, pope (891–96), probably a Roman; successor of Stephen VI. Under Pope Nicholas I he had been bishop in Bulgaria, where he pursued a rigorous Romanizing campaign. Recalled to his diocese of Porto, he became influential in the church.
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, 891–96
Boniface VI, 896
Stephen VI (or VII), 896–97
Romanus, 897
Theodore II, 897
John IX, 898–900
Benedict IV, 900–903
Leo V, 903
antipope: Christopher, 903–4
Sergius III, 904–11
Anastasius III, 911–13
Lando, 913–14
John X, 914–28
Leo VI, 928
Stephen VII (or VIII), 928–31
John XI, 931–35
Leo VII, 936–39
Stephen VIII (or IX), 939–42
Marinus II, 942–46
Agapetus II, 946–55
John XIIJohn XII,
c.937–964, pope (955–64), a Roman (count of Tusculum) named Octavian; successor of Agapetus II and predecessor of either Leo VIII or Benedict V. His father, Alberic, secured John's election before the latter was 20 years old.
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, 955–64
Leo VII, 963–65, or Benedict V, 964–66 (one of these was an antipope)
John XIII, 965–72
Benedict VI, 973–74
antipope: Boniface VII, 974, 984–85
Benedict VII, 974–83
John XIV, 983–84
John XV, 985–96
Gregory V, 996–99
antipope: John XVI, 997–98
Sylvester IISylvester II,
c.945–1003, pope (999–1003), a Frenchman (b. Auvergne) named Gerbert; successor of Gregory V. In his youth he studied at Muslim schools in Spain and became learned in mathematics and astronomy.
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, 999–1003
John XVII, 1003
John XVIII, 1004–9
Sergius IV, 1009–12
Benedict VIII, 1012–24
antipope: Gregory, 1012
John XIX, 1024–32
Benedict IX, 1032–44
Sylvester III, 1045
Benedict IX, 1045
Gregory VI, 1045–46
Clement II, 1046–47
Benedict IX, 1047–48
Damasus II, 1048
St. Leo IXLeo IX, Saint,
1002–54, pope (1049–54), a German named Bruno of Toul, b. Alsace; successor of Damasus II. A relative of Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, he was educated at Toul and was made bishop there in 1027.
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, 1049–54
Victor II, 1055–57
Stephen IX (or X), 1057–58
antipope: Benedict X, 1058–59
Nicholas II, 1058–61
Alexander II, 1061–73
antipope: Honorius II, 1061–72
St. Gregory VIIGregory VII, Saint,
d. 1085, pope (1073–85), an Italian (b. near Rome) named Hildebrand (Ital. Ildebrando); successor of Alexander II. He was one of the greatest popes. Feast: May 25.
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, 1073–85
antipope: Clement III, 1080–1100 (see Guibert of RavennaGuibert of Ravenna
, d. 1100, Italian churchman, antipope (1080–1100) Clement III, b. Parma. As imperial chancellor of Italy (1057–63), he consistently supported the Holy Roman emperor's opposition to papal reform efforts, and he led the party that repudiated Pope
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)
Victor III, 1086–87
Urban IIUrban II,
c.1042–1099, pope (1088–99), a Frenchman named Odo (or Eudes) of Lagery; successor of Victor III. He studied at Reims and became a monk at Cluny. He went to Rome, as prior of Cluny, early in the reign of St. Gregory VII.
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, 1088–99
Paschal IIPaschal II
[Lat.,=of Easter], d. 1118, pope (1099–1118), an Italian (b. near Ravenna) named Ranieri; successor of Urban II. He was a monk and, as a reformer, was made a cardinal by Pope Gregory VII. He was a loyal supporter of Urban II as well. His reign began auspiciously.
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, 1099–1118
antipope: Theodoric, 1100
antipope: Albert, 1102
antipope: Sylvester IV, 1105–11
Gelasius II, 1118–19
antipope: Gregory VIII, 1118–21
Calixtus IICalixtus II,
 Callixtus II,
or Callistus II,
d. 1124, pope (1119–24), named Guy of Burgundy, successor of Gelasius II. The son of count William I of Burgundy, he was archbishop of Vienne during the investiture controversy with Holy Roman Emperor
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, 1119–24
Honorius IIHonorius II,
d. 1130, pope (1124–30), an Italian named Lamberto, b. Bologna; successor of Calixtus II. Before becoming pope he spent several years in Germany adjusting the quarrel over investiture between Holy Roman Emperor Henry V and the papacy.
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, 1124–30
antipope: Celestine II, 1124
Innocent IIInnocent II,
d. 1143, pope (1130–43), a Roman named Gregorio Papareschi; successor of Honorius II. He was created cardinal by Paschal II. On the death of Honorius II, a faction of the cardinals elected him pope.
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, 1130–43
antipope: Anacletus II, 1130–38
antipope: Victor IV, 1138
Celestine II, 1143–44
Lucius II, 1144–45
Eugene IIIEugene III,
d. 1153, pope (1145–53), a Pisan named Bernard (probably in full Bernardo dei Paganelli di Montemagno); successor of Lucius II. Before his election he was called Bernard of Pisa.
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, 1145–53
Anastasius IV, 1153–54
Adrian IVAdrian IV,
d. 1159, pope (1154–59), an Englishman (the only English pope), b. Nicholas Breakspear at Langley, near St. Albans. He was successor of Anastasius IV. At an early age he went to France. There he became an Augustinian canon and later an abbot.
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, 1154–59
Alexander IIIAlexander III,
d. 1181, pope (1159–81), a Sienese named Rolandus [Bandinelli?], successor of Adrian IV. He was a canonist who had studied law under Gratian and had taught at Bologna.
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, 1159–81
antipope: Victor IV, 1159–64
antipope: Paschal III, 1164–68
antipope: Calixtus III, 1168–78
antipope: Innocent III, 1179–80
Lucius IIILucius III,
d. 1185, pope (1181–85), a native of Lucca named Ubaldo Allucingoli; successor of Alexander III. He was a Cistercian with St. Bernard and was created a cardinal in 1141 by Innocent II.
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, 1181–85
Urban III, 1185–87
Gregory VIII, 1187
Clement III, 1187–91
Celestine III, 1191–98
Innocent IIIInnocent III,
b. 1160 or 1161, d. 1216, pope (1198–1216), an Italian, b. Anagni, named Lotario di Segni; successor of Celestine III. Innocent III was succeeded by Honorius III.
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, 1198–1216
Honorius IIIHonorius III,
d. 1227, pope (1216–27), a Roman named Cencio Savelli; successor of Innocent III. He was created cardinal in 1197 and was an able administrator of the papal treasury.
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, 1216–27
Gregory IXGregory IX,
1143?–1241, pope (1227–41), an Italian named Ugolino di Segni, b. Anagni; successor of Honorius III. As cardinal under his uncle, Innocent III, he became, at St. Francis' request, the first cardinal protector of the Franciscans.
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, 1227–41
Celestine IV, 1241
Innocent IVInnocent IV,
d. 1254, pope (1243–54), a Genoese named Sinibaldo Fieschi, a distinguished jurist who studied and later taught law at the Univ. of Bologna; successor of Celestine IV. He was of a noble family.
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, 1243–54
Alexander IV, 1254–61
Urban IVUrban IV,
d. 1264, pope (1261–64), a Frenchman (b. Troyes) named Jacques Pantaléon; successor of Alexander IV. In the pontifical service he was sent on missions into N Germany; then he was made bishop of Verdun (1253) and Latin patriarch of Jerusalem (1255).
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,1261–64
Clement IVClement IV,
d. 1268, pope (1265–68), a Frenchman named Guy le gros Foulques; successor of Urban IV. He was a lay adviser of King Louis IX of France, but after his wife's death he entered the church.
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, 1265–68
Gregory X, 1271–76
Innocent VInnocent V,
d. 1276, pope (1276), a Savoyard named Peter of Tarentaise; successor of Gregory X. He was a Dominican and studied at Paris under St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Albertus Magnus.
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, 1276
Adrian V, 1276
John XXIJohn XXI,
d. 1277, pope (1276–77), a Portuguese named Pedro Giuliano; successor of Adrian V. Known generally as Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus), he is the only Portuguese pope.
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, 1276–77
Nicholas IIINicholas III,
d. 1280, pope (1277–80), a Roman named Giovanni Gaetano Orsini; successor of John XXI. As a cardinal he made a great reputation in diplomacy, and he was a close confidant of popes for 30 years. He was elected pope after a six-month delay.
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, 1277–80
Martin IVMartin IV,
d. 1285, pope (1281–85), a Frenchman named Simon de Brie; successor of Nicholas III. He was chancellor under Louis IX of France and was created cardinal by Urban IV. He was thus a supporter of the Angevin dynasty in S Italy and Sicily.
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, 1281–85
Honorius IV, 1285–87
Nicholas IV, 1288–92
St. Celestine VCelestine V, Saint,
1215–96, pope (elected July 5, resigned Dec. 13, 1294), an Italian (b. Isernia) named Pietro del Murrone; successor of Nicholas IV. Celestine's election ended a two-year deadlock among the cardinals over a successor to Nicholas IV.
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, 1294
Boniface VIIIBoniface VIII,
1235–1303, pope (1294–1303), an Italian (b. Anagni) named Benedetto Caetani; successor of St. Celestine V.

As a cardinal he was independent of the factions in the papal court, and he opposed the election of Celestine.
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, 1294–1303
Benedict XIBenedict XI,
d. 1304, pope (1303–4), an Italian (b. Treviso) named Niccolo Boccasini; successor of Boniface VIII. Prior to his election he had been master general of the Dominican order.
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, 1303–4
Clement VClement V,
1264–1314, pope (1305–14), a Frenchman named Bertrand de Got; successor of Benedict XI. He was made archbishop of Bordeaux by Boniface VIII, who trusted him; surprisingly, he was also in some favor at the court of Philip IV, even though Philip and the pope
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, 1305–14
John XXIIJohn XXII,
1244–1334, pope (1316–34), a Frenchman (b. Cahors) named Jacques Duèse; successor of Clement V. Formerly, he was often called John XXI. He reigned at Avignon. John was celebrated as a canon lawyer under Boniface VIII, whom he supported.
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, 1316–34
antipope: Nicholas V, 1328–30 (see Rainalducci, PietroRainalducci or Rainallucci, Pietro
, d. 1333, Italian churchman (b. Corvaro, near Rieti), antipope (1328–30) with the name Nicholas V.
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)
Benedict XII, 1334–42
Clement VIClement VI,
1291–1352, pope (1342–52), a Frenchman named Pierre Roger; successor of Benedict XII. His court was at Avignon. He had been archbishop of Sens, archbishop of Rouen, and cardinal (1338).
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, 1342–52
Innocent VIInnocent VI,
d. 1362, pope (1352–62), a Frenchman named Étienne Aubert; successor of Clement VI. He was a well-known jurist and was created cardinal in 1342. He lived at Avignon.
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, 1352–62
Urban VUrban V,
1310–70, pope (1362–70), a Provençal named Guillaume de Grimoard; successor of Innocent VI. He was a Benedictine renowned for his knowledge of canon law.
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, 1362–70
Gregory XIGregory XI,
1330–78, pope (1370–78), a Frenchman named Pierre Roger de Beaufort. He was the successor of Urban V, who had made an unsuccessful attempt to remove the papacy from Avignon to Rome (1367–70).
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, 1370–78

The Great Schism, 1378–1417
Roman Line
Urban VIUrban VI,
1318?–1389, pope (1378–89), whose election was the immediate cause of the Great Schism; a Neapolitan named Bartolomeo Prignano; successor of Gregory XI. He was made archbishop of Acerenza (1364) and of Bari (1377).
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, 1378–89
Boniface IXBoniface IX,
c.1345–1404, pope (1389–1404), a Neapolitan named Pietro Tomacelli; successor of Urban VI. The Avignon antipopes Clement VII and Benedict XIII were his contemporaries during the Great Schism. He succeeded in imposing his rule on the Papal States.
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, 1389–1404
Innocent VII, 1404–6
Gregory XIIGregory XII,
c.1327–1417, pope (1406–15), a Venetian named Angelo Correr; successor of Innocent VII. As a condition of election, Gregory promised to do everything possible to end the Great Schism, including the relinquishing of his office.
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, 1406–15
Avignon Line
antipope: Clement VII, 1378–94 (see Robert of GenevaRobert of Geneva,
d. 1394, Genevan churchman, antipope (1378–94; see Schism, Great) with the name Clement VII. He was archbishop of Cambrai (1368) and was created (1371) a cardinal.
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)
antipope: Benedict XIII, 1394–1423 (see Luna, Pedro deLuna, Pedro de
, 1328?–1423?, Aragonese churchman, antipope (1394–1417) with the name Benedict XIII. He was a doctor of canon law and as cardinal (1375) became an outstanding member of the Curia Romana.
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)
antipope: Clement VII, 1423–29
antipope: Benedict XIV, 1425–30
Pisan Line
antipope: Alexander V, 1409–10
antipope: John XXIII, 1410–15 (see Cossa, BaldassareCossa, Baldassare
, c.1370–1419, Neapolitan churchman, antipope (1410–15; see Schism, Great) with the name John XXIII. He had a military career before entering the service of the church.
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)
Martin VMartin V,
1368–1431, pope (1417–31), a Roman named Oddone Colonna; successor of Gregory XII. He was created cardinal by Innocent VII, and in the schism (see Schism, Great) he attended and supported the decisions of the Council of Pisa (see Pisa, Council of).
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, 1417–31
Eugene IVEugene IV,
1383–1447, pope (1431–47), a Venetian named Gabriele Condulmer; successor of Martin V. He was of exemplary character and ascetic habits. Gregory XII, his uncle, made him cardinal (1408).
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, 1431–47
antipope: Felix V, 1439–49 (see Amadeus VIIIAmadeus VIII
, 1383–1451, count (1391–1416) and duke (from 1416) of Savoy, antipope (1439–49) with the name Felix V. In 1434 he appointed his son regent of Savoy and retired to the hermitage of Ripaille, on Lake Geneva, which he had founded.
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)
Nicholas VNicholas V,
1397–1455, pope (1447–55), an Italian named Tommaso Parentucelli, b. probably Sarzana, Liguria; successor of Eugene IV. From Eugene IV he inherited the antipapal enactments of the Council of Basel (see Basel, Council of).
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, 1447–55
Calixtus IIICalixtus III,
 Callixtus III,
or Callistus III,
1378–1458, pope (1455–58), a Spaniard (b. Játiva) named Alonso de Borja or, in Italian, Alfonso Borgia; successor of Nicholas V.
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, 1455–58
Pius IIPius II
, 1405–64, pope (1458–64), an Italian named Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini (often in Latin, Aeneas Silvius), renamed Pienza after him, b. Corsigniano; successor of Calixtus III.
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, 1458–64
Paul IIPaul II,
1417–71, pope (1464–71), a Venetian named Pietro Barbo; successor of Pius II. He was a nephew of Eugene IV. A Renaissance pope, he patronized printing, beautified and improved Rome, and collected antiquities.
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, 1464–71
Sixtus IVSixtus IV
, 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal.
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, 1471–84
Innocent VIIIInnocent VIII,
1432–92, pope (1484–92), a Genoese named Giovanni Battista Cibo; successor of Sixtus IV. He was made a cardinal in 1473. His close friend, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere (later Pope Julius II), largely directed the papal affairs.
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, 1484–92
Alexander VIAlexander VI,
1431?–1503, pope (1492–1503), a Spaniard (b. Játiva) named Rodrigo de Borja or, in Italian, Rodrigo Borgia; successor of Innocent VIII. He took Borja as his surname from his mother's brother Alfonso, who was Pope Calixtus III.
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, 1492–1503
Pius III, 1503
Julius IIJulius II,
1443–1513, pope (1503–13), an Italian named Giuliano della Rovere, b. Savona; successor of Pius III. His uncle Sixtus IV gave him many offices and created him cardinal.
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, 1503–13
Leo XLeo X,
1475–1521, pope (1513–21), a Florentine named Giovanni de' Medici; successor of Julius II. He was the son of Lorenzo de' Medici, was made a cardinal in his boyhood, and was head of his family before he was 30 (see Medici).
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, 1513–21
Adrian VIAdrian VI,
1459–1523, pope (1522–23), a Netherlander (b. Utrecht) named Adrian Florensz; successor of Leo X. He taught at Louvain and was tutor of the young prince, later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
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, 1522–23
Clement VIIClement VII,
c.1475–1534, pope (1523–34), a Florentine named Giulio de' Medici; successor of Adrian VI. He was the nephew of Lorenzo de' Medici and was therefore first cousin of Pope Leo X.
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, 1523–34
Paul IIIPaul III,
1468–1549, pope (1534–49), a Roman named Alessandro Farnese; successor of Clement VII. He was created cardinal by Alexander VI, and his influence increased steadily.
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, 1534–49
Julius III, 1550–55
Marcellus II, 1555
Paul IVPaul IV,
1476–1559, pope (1555–59), a Neapolitan named Gian Pietro Carafa; successor of Marcellus II. First superior of the Theatines (see Cajetan, Saint), he was sternly ascetic. A leading reformer, he organized the Inquisition set up by Paul III.
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, 1555–59
Pius IVPius IV,
1499–1565, pope (1559–65), a Milanese named Giovanni Angelo de' Medici; successor of Paul IV. He was probably not related to the great Medici family.
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, 1559–65
St. Pius VPius V, Saint,
1504–72, pope (1566–72), an Italian named Michele Ghislieri, b. near Alessandria; successor of Pius IV. He was ordained in the Dominicans (1528) and became celebrated for his austerity.
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, 1566–72
Gregory XIIIGregory XIII,
1502–85, pope (1572–85), an Italian named Ugo Buoncompagni, b. Bologna; successor of St. Pius V. He is best known for his work on the calendar, and the reformed calendar, the Gregorian, is named for him.
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, 1572–85
Sixtus VSixtus V,
1521–90, pope (1585–90), an Italian (b. near Montalto) named Felice Peretti; successor of Gregory XIII. He entered the Franciscan order in early youth.
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, 1585–90
Urban VII, 1590
Gregory XIV, 1590–91
Innocent IX, 1591
Clement VIIIClement VIII,
1536–1605, pope (1592–1605), a Florentine named Ippolito Aldobrandini; successor of Innocent IX. He reversed the policy of his predecessors by allying the Holy See with France rather than with Spain, which had assumed a dictatorial attitude over the
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, 1592–1605
Leo XI, 1605
Paul VPaul V,
1552–1621, pope (1605–21), a Roman named Camillo Borghese; successor of Leo XI. He was created cardinal (1596) by Clement VIII and was renowned for his knowledge of canon law.
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, 1605–21
Gregory XV, 1621–23
Urban VIIIUrban VIII,
1568–1644, pope (1623–44), a Florentine named Maffeo Barberini; successor of Gregory XV. Throughout his pontificate the Thirty Years War raged in Germany. For various political reasons, Urban gave little help to the Catholics.
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, 1623–44
Innocent X, 1644–55
Alexander VII, 1655–67
Clement IX, 1667–69
Clement X, 1670–76
Innocent XIInnocent XI,
1611–89, pope (1676–89), an Italian named Benedetto Odescalchi, b. Como; successor of Clement X. He was elected because of his great saintliness and desire for reform.
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, 1676–89
Alexander VIII, 1689–91
Innocent XIIInnocent XII,
1615–1700, pope (1691–1700), a Neapolitan named Antonio Pignatelli; successor of Alexander VIII. He was frequently employed by his predecessors as a nuncio, and Innocent XI created him cardinal. His election ended a five-month deadlock in the conclave.
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, 1691–1700
Clement XIClement XI,
1649–1721, pope (1700–1721), an Italian (b. Urbino) named Giovanni Francesco Albani; successor of Innocent XII. He was known in his youth for his prodigious learning and brilliance. He became cardinal in 1690.
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, 1700–1721
Innocent XIII, 1721–24
Benedict XIII, 1724–30
Clement XII, 1730–40
Benedict XIVBenedict XIV,
1675–1758, pope (1740–58), an Italian (b. Bologna) named Prospero Lambertini; successor of Clement XII. Long before his pontificate he was renowned for his learning and wrote a classic treatise on the subject of canonization (1734–38).
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, 1740–58
Clement XIII, 1758–69
Clement XIVClement XIV,
1705–74, pope (1769–74), an Italian (b. near Rimini) named Lorenzo Ganganelli; successor of Clement XIII. He was prominent for many years in pontifical affairs at Rome, and he was created cardinal in 1759. He was a Conventual Franciscan.
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, 1769–74
Pius VIPius VI,
1717–99, pope (1775–99), an Italian named G. Angelo Braschi, b. Cesena; successor of Clement XIV. He was created cardinal in 1774. Early in his reign he was faced with the attempts of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II to "reform" the church by suppressing
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, 1775–99
Pius VIIPius VII,
1740–1823, pope (1800–1823), an Italian named Barnaba Chiaramonti, b. Cesena; successor of Pius VI, who had created him cardinal in 1785. He conducted himself ably during the period of the French Revolution, showing sympathy for the social aims of the
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, 1800–1823
Leo XII, 1823–29
Pius VIII, 1829–30
Gregory XVIGregory XVI,
1765–1846, pope (1831–46), an Italian named Bartolomeo Alberto Capellari, b. Belluno; successor of Pius VIII. In 1783 he became a Camaldolite and was (1825) created cardinal.
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, 1831–46
Pius IXPius IX,
1792–1878, pope (1846–78), an Italian named Giovanni M. Mastai-Ferretti, b. Senigallia; successor of Gregory XVI. He was cardinal and bishop of Imola when elected pope.
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, 1846–78
Leo XIIILeo XIII,
1810–1903, pope (1878–1903), an Italian (b. Carpineto, E of Rome) named Gioacchino Pecci; successor of Pius IX. Ordained in 1837, he earned an excellent reputation as archbishop of Perugia (1846–77), and was created cardinal in 1853.
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, 1878–1903
St. Pius XPius X, Saint,
1835–1914, pope (1903–14), an Italian named Giuseppe Sarto, b. near Treviso; successor of Leo XIII and predecessor of Benedict XV. Ordained in 1858, he became bishop of Mantua (1884), a cardinal (1893), and patriarch of Venice (1893).
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, 1903–14
Benedict XVBenedict XV,
1854–1922, pope (1914–22), an Italian (b. Genoa) named Giacomo della Chiesa; successor of Pius X. He was made archbishop of Bologna in 1907 and cardinal in 1914, two months before his election as pope.
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, 1914–22
Pius XIPius XI,
1857–1939, pope (1922–39), an Italian named Achille Ratti, b. Desio, near Milan; successor of Benedict XV. Prepapal Career

Ratti's father was a silk manufacturer. He studied in Milan and at the Gregorian Univ., Rome, and was ordained in 1879.
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, 1922–39
Pius XIIPius XII,
1876–1958, pope (1939–58), an Italian named Eugenio Pacelli, b. Rome; successor of Pius XI. Ordained a priest in 1899, he entered the Vatican's secretariat of state.
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, 1939–58
John XXIIIJohn XXIII, Saint,
1881–1963, pope (1958–63), an Italian (b. Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo) named Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli; successor of Pius XII. He was of peasant stock.
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, 1958–63
Paul VIPaul VI,
1897–1978, pope (1963–78), an Italian (b. Concesio, near Brescia) named Giovanni Battista Montini; successor of John XXIII. Prepapal Career

The son of a prominent newspaper editor, he was ordained in 1920.
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, 1963–78
John Paul IJohn Paul I,
1912–78, pope (1978), an Italian (b. Canale d'Agordo) named Albino Luciani; successor of Paul VI. Born into a poor, working-class family, he trained at local seminaries and at the Gregorian Univ. in Rome.
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, 1978
John Paul IIJohn Paul II, Saint
1920–2005, pope (1978–2005), a Pole (b. Wadowice) named Karol Józef Wojtyła; successor of John Paul I. He was the first non-Italian pope elected since the Dutch Adrian VI (1522–23) and the first Polish and Slavic pope.
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, 1978–2005
Benedict XVIBenedict XVI,
1927–, pope (2005–13) and Roman Catholic theologian, a German (b. Marktl am Inn, Bavaria) named Josef (or Joseph) Alois Ratzinger; successor of John Paul II. He entered the seminary in 1939, but his training was interrupted by World War II.
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, 2005–13
FrancisFrancis,
1936–, pope (2013–), an Argentinian (b. Buenos Aires to Italian immigrants) named Jorge Mario Bergoglio; successor of Benedict XVI. Francis, the first non-European to assume the papacy in more than 1,200 years, is the first pope from the Americas and the
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, 2013–
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