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bending of the stalk of a plant (stalk lodging) or the entire plant (root lodging).

Stalk lodging is caused by the large load of lush growth on the lower part of the stalk. It is caused by overgrowth, a high nitrogen level, abundant watering, and shading. Lodging also occurs in fields with climbing weeds and fungal diseases that afflict the shoots and roots of plants. Bread grains most often lodge at the end of the milk stage and the beginning of the dough stage, at which time the weight of undeveloped matter is greatest. In this period, walls of stalk cells may partially decompose to form seeds, as a result of which the straw becomes weaker. Root lodging occurs when the roots are poorly anchored in the soil because of excess moisture. The grain of lodged plants forms abnormally; it is sickly, its nutrient content is lower than normal, and its yield drops. The mechanized harvesting of lodged plants is difficult, and harvest losses increase.

Steps to prevent lodging include raising varieties resistant to lodging; observing norms for sowing rate and depth; using optimal doses of nitrogen fertilizer in combination with phosphorus, potassium, and microfertilizers; and treating crops with growth inhibitors (for example, chlorocholine chloride).


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