Lolium

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Lolium

 

(ryegrass), a genus of perennial or annual herbs of the family Gramineae. The inflorescence is a two-ranked spike, and the spikelets are multiflorous and laterally compressed, that is, appressed to the spike’s axis on the narrow side. There are approximately 15 species (according to some data, as many as 40), which are distributed primarily in the temperate zone of Eurasia and North Africa.

Nine species are found in the USSR. The English ryegrass (L. perenne) is found in damp meadows, on slopes, and in gardens and parks in the European USSR, the Caucasus, Western Siberia, and Middle Asia. One of the best forage grasses, it is cultivated for pasturage and hay. The English ryegrass withstands trampling and grows quickly after being grazed. For these reasons, it is also used for lawns. Other valuable forage grasses include the Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) and L persicum, which are found in the Caucasus, and L. rigidum, which grows in the Caucasus and Middle Asia. The darnel (L. temulentum) is widely distributed in the northern and central regions of the European USSR and in Transcaucasia, southwestern Siberia, and the Far East. It grows as an annual weed among spring grain crops. The darnel and several other species of Lolium are usually toxic to humans and livestock (except swine, ducks, and chickens) because of the development in the caryopses of the fungus Stromantinia temulenta, which produces the alkaloid temulin. When flour containing L. temulentum is used, the product may cause poisoning, manifested by dizziness, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, and convulsions. L. remotum, which is distributed throughout the European USSR and the southern Far East, grows as an annual weed among flax plantings. Measures to control the weed species of Lolium include cleaning the seed material and early autumn plowing.

REFERENCES

Kormovye rasteniia senokosov i pastbishch SSSR, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Kott, S. A. Sornye rasteniia i bor’ba s nimi, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1961.

T. V. EGOROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Kuzyakov Y, Ehrensberger H, Stahr K (2001) Carbon partitioning and belowground translocation by Lolium perenne.
Table 2: Means comparison of Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis Grass species G% GI% GIR% SIR% SDW(g) RN Lolium perenne 75.
Greencompost is the form of compost prepared from green wastes such as garden and farm wastes and its effects were investigated for the improvement of dry matter yield and chemical composition of Lolium perenne grass, as indicator plant.
Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo avaliar a atividade fitotoxica dos extratos metanolicos na germinacao e desenvolvimento da parte vegetativa de sementes de Lactuca sativa, Amaranthus hybridus, Lolium perenne, Ipomoea purpurea e Bidens odorata.
Forma un pastizal de 25 a 35 cm de altura en los que domina Lolium perenne.
3] perennial grasses, consisting almost entirely of Lolium perenne, were responsible for many of the treatment effects that we observed, consistent with previous investigations (Wardle et al.
Noccaea caerulescens and Arenaria orbiculata), even with the reported productivity losses; in this regard, Panicum maximum, Avena sativa, and Lolium perenne stood out for being more tolerant to heavy metals than the other evaluated species.
Two sides of a leaf blade: Blumeria graminis needs chemical cues in cuticular waxes of Lolium perenne for germination and differentiation.
8% of hemicellulose extracted from Lolium perenne was hydrolysable to xylose through hemicellulase reaction during ensiling and degradation of hemicellulose to sugar was maximized at near pH 6.
Background: Two bacterial aritificial chromosome (BAC) libraries have been developed from Lolium perenne genomic DNA using HindIII and BstY1 restriction to generate the inserts.
Lolium perenne grass was grown in all the pots those were replicated four times arranged in CRD factorial.
Effect of drought on the growth of Lolium perenne genotypes with and without fungal endophytes.