Louis the German

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Louis the German,

c.804–876, king of the East Franks (817–76). When his father, Emperor of the West Louis ILouis I
or Louis the Pious,
Fr. Louis le Pieux or Louis le Débonnaire, 778–840, emperor of the West (814–40), son and successor of Charlemagne. He was crowned king of Aquitaine in 781 and co-emperor with his father in 813.
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, partitioned the empire in 817, Louis received Bavaria and adjacent territories. In the conflict between his brother Lothair ILothair I
, 795–855, emperor of the West (840–55), son and successor of Louis I. In 817 his father crowned him coemperor. He was recrowned (823) at Rome by the pope and issued (824) a constitution, proclaiming his right to confirm papal elections.
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 (who succeeded Louis I as emperor) and their father, Louis the German repeatedly changed sides. In 839 Louis I transferred some of Louis's holdings to Lothair; Louis again rebelled and his father died in the ensuing campaign. Louis now joined with his half-brother Charles (Charles the Bald, later Emperor of the West Charles IICharles II
or Charles the Bald,
823–77, emperor of the West (875–77) and king of the West Franks (843–77); son of Emperor Louis I by a second marriage.
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) against Lothair, who sought to gain supremacy in their kingdoms. They checked Lothair at FontenoyFontenoy
, village, Hainaut prov., SW Belgium, near Tournai. There, in 1745, Count Maurice de Saxe, in his most celebrated victory, led the French against the British and their allies under the duke of Cumberland in the War of the Austrian Succession.
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 (841), renewed their alliance (842; see Strasbourg, Oath ofStrasbourg, Oath of,
842, oath sworn by Charles the Bald (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles II) and Louis the German in solemnizing their alliance against their brother, Emperor Lothair I.
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), and forced Lothair to accept the Treaty of Verdun (843; see Verdun, Treaty ofVerdun, Treaty of,
the partition of Charlemagne's empire among three sons of Louis I, emperor of the West. It was concluded in 843 at Verdun on the Meuse or, possibly, Verdun-sur-le-Doubs, Soâne-et-Loire dept., E France.
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), which made them independent sovereigns. In 858–59 Louis turned on Charles and unsuccessfully invaded the West Frankish kingdom (France), but both brothers soon directed their attention to the lands of Lothair's heirs, Emperor of the West Louis IILouis II,
d. 875, emperor of the West (855–75), king of Italy (844–75), son of Emperor of the West Lothair I. In 844, Lothair I designated him king of Italy and in 850 he was crowned emperor of the West in Rome.
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 and King LothairLothair,
sometimes called Lothair II,
d. 869, king of Lotharingia (855–69), second son of Emperor of the West Lothair I. He inherited the region bounded by the Rhine, Scheldt, Alps, and North Sea, which became known as Lotharingia (Lorraine).
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 of Lotharingia. After King Lothair's death LotharingiaLotharingia
, name given to the northern portion of the lands assigned (843) to Emperor of the West Lothair I in the first division of the Carolingian empire (see Verdun, Treaty of).
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 was divided between them by the Treaty of MersenMersen, Treaty of,
870, redivision of the Carolingian empire by the sons of Louis I, Charles the Bald (later Charles II) of the West Franks (France) and Louis the German of the East Franks (Germany), signed at Mersen (Dutch Meersen), now in the Netherlands.
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 (870). The death (875) of Louis II renewed the war between Louis the German and Charles; Charles quickly conquered Italy and was crowned emperor of the West. Louis the German, in the course of his reign, defended his frontiers against the Slavs and the Danes and suppressed several revolts of his sons, CarlomanCarloman
, d. 880, king of Bavaria, Carinthia, Pannonia, and Moravia (876–80) and of Italy (877–80), son of Louis the German and father of Arnulf, emperor of the West.
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 of Bavaria, Louis the YoungerLouis the Younger,
c.830–882, German king, ruler (876–82) over Saxony, Franconia, and Thuringia, son of Louis the German. He shared the succession to his father's lands with his brothers Carloman (d. 880) and Charles the Fat (later Emperor of the West Charles III).
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, and Charles the Fat (later Emperor of the West Charles IIICharles III
or Charles the Fat,
839–88, emperor of the West (881–87), king of the East Franks (882–87), and king of the West Franks (884–87); son of Louis the German, at whose death he inherited Swabia (876).
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).