Louis Philippe


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Louis Philippe

(lwē fēlēp`), 1773–1850, king of the French (1830–48), known before his accession as Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans. The son of Philippe Égalité (see Orléans, Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d'Orléans, Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d'
, known as Philippe Égalité
, 1747–93, French revolutionist; great-grandson of Philippe II, duc d'Orléans (see Orléans, family) and great-great-great-grandson of King Louis XIII.
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), he joined the army of the French Revolution, but deserted (1793) with Gen. Charles François DumouriezDumouriez, Charles François
, 1739–1823, French general in the French Revolutionary Wars. After fighting in the Seven Years War, he was employed by King Louis XV on several secret missions.
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. Although in exile for the next 20 years, he did not collaborate with France's enemies. Reconciled with the BourbonsBourbon
, European royal family, originally of France; a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. One branch of the Bourbons occupies the modern Spanish throne, and other branches ruled the Two Sicilies and Parma.
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, he returned to France after their restoration and soon recovered his huge fortune. He figured in the liberal opposition to kings Louis XVIIILouis XVIII,
1755–1824, king of France (1814–24), brother of King Louis XVI. Known as the comte de Provence, he fled (1791) to Koblenz from the French Revolution and intrigued to bring about foreign intervention against the revolutionaries.
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 and Charles XCharles X,
1757–1836, king of France (1824–30); brother of King Louis XVI and of King Louis XVIII, whom he succeeded. As comte d'Artois he headed the reactionary faction at the court of Louis XVI.
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 and was supported by the discontented upper bourgeoisie and by the liberal journalists.

In the July RevolutionJuly Revolution,
revolt in France in July, 1830, against the government of King Charles X. The attempt of the ultraroyalists under Charles to return to the ancien régime provoked the opposition of the middle classes, who wanted more voice in the government.
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 of 1830, Louis Philippe was made lieutenant general of the realm and, with the support of the marquis de LafayetteLafayette, or La Fayette, Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, marquis de
, 1757–1834, French general and political leader. He was born of a distinguished family and early entered the army.
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, was chosen "king of the French." His reign, known as the July Monarchy, marked the triumph of the wealthy bourgeoisie and a return to influence of many former Napoleonic officials. Although the constitutional charter of 1814 was revised (1830) in a liberal direction, the new legislature was unresponsive to the economic needs and political desires of the lower classes.

In the early years of his reign, Louis Philippe's basically conservative outlook was strengthened by a number of workers' demonstrations and by several attempts on his life, notably that of Giuseppe FieschiFieschi, Giuseppe
, 1790–1836, French conspirator, b. Corsica. He was a soldier in the Napoleonic army. A radical, he attempted in July, 1835, to assassinate King Louis Philippe.
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 (1835). Although the king was a constitutional monarch, he gained considerable personal power by splitting the liberal movement and appointing weak ministers, such as Louis MoléMolé, Louis Mathieu, Comte
, 1781–1855, French politician. He was made a count and minister of justice by Emperor Napoleon I and later served in several cabinets under King Louis XVIII.
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. Eventually a conservative ministry, dominated (1840–48) by François GuizotGuizot, François
, 1787–1874, French statesman and historian. The son of a Protestant family of Nîmes, he was educated at Geneva. He began a legal career in Paris in 1805, but soon took up literary work and later became a professor of modern history at the
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, who had the king's confidence, came to power.

In foreign policy, Louis Philippe promoted Anglo-French friendship and supported colonial expansion; Algeria was conquered in his reign. He cooperated with England in support (1831) of Belgian independence and in the Quadruple AllianceQuadruple Alliance,
any of several European alliances. The Quadruple Alliance of 1718 was formed by Great Britain, France, the Holy Roman emperor, and the Netherlands when Philip V of Spain, guided by Cardinal Alberoni, sought by force to nullify the peace settlements reached
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 of 1834. The Franco-British rapprochement was ended (1846), however, by the Spanish marriages (see Isabella IIIsabella II,
1830–1904, queen of Spain (1833–68), daughter of Ferdinand VII and of Maria Christina. Her uncle, Don Carlos, contested her succession under the Salic law, and thus the Carlist Wars began (see Carlists).
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), which violated a previous Franco-British agreement.

In France, Louis Philippe became increasingly unpopular. On the right he was opposed by the legitimists (who supported the senior Bourbon line) and by the Bonapartists. The leftist elements organized numerous secret revolutionary societies. The opposition to the government undertook (1847–48) a banquet campaign to propagate the demand for electoral reform. The campaign led to the February RevolutionFebruary Revolution,
1848, French revolution that overthrew the monarchy of Louis Philippe and established the Second Republic. General dissatisfaction resulted partly from the king's increasingly reactionary policy, carried out after 1840 by François Guizot, and partly
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 of 1848. Louis Philippe abdicated in favor of his grandson (see OrléansOrléans
, family name of two branches of the French royal line.

The house of Valois-Orléans was founded by Louis, duc d'Orléans (see separate article), whose assassination (1407) caused the civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundians.
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, family), but a republic was set up. The king fled to England, where he died. Louis Philippe was known as the "citizen king" because of his bourgeois manner and dress, and he and his regime were satirized by Honoré DaumierDaumier, Honoré
, 1808–79, French caricaturist, painter, and sculptor. Daumier was the greatest social satirist of his day. Son of a Marseilles glazier, he accompanied his family to Paris in 1816. There he studied under Lenoir and learned lithography.
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.

Bibliography

See J. Lucas-Dubreton, The Restoration and the July Monarchy (tr. 1929); biographies by J. S. C. Abbott (1902), C. Gavin (1933), A. de Stoeckl (1958), T. E. Howarth (1961), and P. H. Beik (1965).

Louis Philippe

 

Born Oct. 6, 1773, in Paris; died Aug. 26, 1850, in Claremont, Great Britain. French king, 1830-48. Member of the junior (Orléans) branch of the Bourbon dynasty.

During the Great French Revolution, following the example of his father, Duke Philippe of Orleans, Louis Philippe renounced the title of duke of Chartres and took the last name Egalite (Equality). In 1792, in the French revolutionary army, he participated in the battles of Valmy and Jemappes. In 1793, along with C. F. Dumouriez (whose adjutant he was), Louis Philippe went over to the side of the Austrians. That same year, he settled in Switzerland. Prior to his return to France in 1814, he lived in exile in a number of European states and the United States; he lived in Sicily from 1810 to 1814. During the Restoration period he maintained ties with opposition-minded circles of the big bourgeoisie. During the July Revolution of 1830, Louis Philippe’s supporters (the Orleanists) succeeded in having him proclaimed king. Louis Philippe ruled in the interests of the upper elements of the bourgeoisie. He was overthrown by the February Revolution of 1848 and fled to Great Britain.

Louis Philippe

known as the Citizen King. 1773--1850, king of the French (1830--48). His r?gime became excessively identified with the bourgeoisie and he was forced to abdicate by the revolution of 1848
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