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common name for members of the Thallophyta (or Thallobionta), a taxonomic group in some archaic classification systems that comprised algaealgae
[plural of Lat. alga=seaweed], a large and diverse group of primarily aquatic plantlike organisms. These organisms were previously classified as a primitive subkingdom of the plant kingdom, the thallophytes (plants that lack true roots, stems, leaves, and flowers).
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, fungiFungi
, kingdom of heterotrophic single-celled, multinucleated, or multicellular organisms, including yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. The organisms live as parasites, symbionts, or saprobes (see saprophyte).
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, and lichenslichen
, usually slow-growing organism of simple structure, composed of fungi (see Fungi) and photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria living together in a symbiotic relationship and resulting in a structure that resembles neither constituent.
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. The thallophytes were considered lower plantsplant,
any organism of the plant kingdom, as opposed to one of the animal kingdom or of the kingdoms Fungi, Protista, or Monera in the five-kingdom system of classification.
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 and were grouped together because of they consisted of one cell or a relatively undifferentiated mass of cells called a thallus, instead of having an organized plant body (stem, root, and leaf).



a lower plant (an alga, fungus, or lichen) whose body is not divided into stem and leaves but consists of a thallus. (A plant whose body is divided into stem and leaves is a cormophyte.) Some algae, for example, Caulerpa, Macrocystis, and Sargassum, are externally differentiated into stem and leaf organs, but the anatomic structure of these organs is less complex than in higher plants.

References in periodicals archive ?
Lower plant maintenance and pension costs during the first quarter of 2010 contributed to a $9 million reduction in TEP's base O&M expense compared with the same period last year.
In spite of lower plant load factor (PLF) of gas based units, total power generated by the company during the 12-month period rose 85% to 9,061 MUs on the back of 152% rise in capacity, which touched 3,826 MW as on March 31, 2013.
Charged droplets are effectively on the upper and lower plant species can not penetrate.
Actions include stimulating field surveys for mapping lower plant and fungi distributions across Wales.
The decrease in gross profit was primarily due to a $75 million impact from reduced volume and unfavorable product mix; $35 million from unfavorable manufacturing costs (primarily due to lower plant utilization); $6 million from unfavorable foreign currency translation; a $3 million benefit in 2008 from insurance proceeds associated with the 2005 hurricanes Katrina and Rita; $1 million in inventory write-offs; and other cost increases of $5 million.
As many of our costs are fixed in nature and not related to production levels, slightly lower plant production during the quarter resulted in a higher average cost per pound and the related cost per pound sold was also higher.
The average total fresh weight/plant, the marketable fresh weight/plant and head size were higher at the lower plant density.
Projects investigated the effect of strobilurin use together with other agronomic factors including lower plant population, nitrogen splits and timing, and PGR use, to see if they helped achieve the nitrogen percentage required," said Professor Jellis.
8 million for the 2008 period due to a combination of reduced sales volume, lower customer pricing/mix, higher medical costs, lower plant utilization and higher depreciation.
Among the design advantages of the "bottle" concept are lower plant cost, smaller plot space, less piping and reduced pressure drop with resulting lower compression power.
Operating profit on a managed basis decreased $38 million primarily due to lower volume and unfavorable manufacturing costs resulting from lower plant utilization.
Expansion in material margin (net sales less raw material costs) was offset by lower volumes sold and lower plant utilization during the period.