Liubech

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Liubech

 

an urban-type settlement in Repki Raion, Chernigov Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. Situated on the Dnieper River, 28 km from the Nedanchichi railroad station on the ChernigovOvruch line, Liubech has a vegetable-drying plant, ship-repair shops, and a fishing kolkhoz.

Liubech first appears in the Russian chronicles under the year 882. In the mid-tenth century Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus included it among the Russian cities trading with Byzantium. An important assembly of princes was held here in 1097. It was burned by Rostislav, prince of Smolensk, in 1147 and later rebuilt; subsequently it was destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars (1240) and captured by Lithuanian magnates (c. 1356). From 1569 to the mid-17th century it was under Polish rule. Peasant disturbances broke out in 1905, and Soviet rule was established in January 1918. Occupied by fascist German forces during the Great Patriotic War (1941-45), Liubech was liberated by the Soviet Army on Sept. 23, 1943.

Archaeological excavations conducted from 1957 to 1960 by B. A. Rybakov unearthed many remains of buildings, objects of material culture, and ornaments, mainly from the 11th and 12th centuries. Originally the city was surrounded by an earthen wall with oak towers and frames filled with earth and stones. In the last quarter of the 11th century, under Vladimir Monomakh, Liubech was ringed by oak walls enclosing two artisans’ settlements and a fortified castle. The castle had a wooden palace, a church, imposing two-story houses, a prison, servants’ quarters, and service buildings. The remains of a massive four-story tower with double walls have been discovered.

B. A. RYBAKOV