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descendants of Native Americans whose language belonged to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). The ancestors of the Lumbee occupied the coast of the SE United States and were part of the Eastern Woodlands cultureEastern Woodlands culture,
term used to refer to Native American societies inhabiting the eastern United States. The earliest Woodland groups were the Adena and Hopewell, who lived in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys between 800 B.C. and A.D. 800.
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 area. Generally friendly to the Europeans, they taught the settlers their methods of fishing, hunting, and farming and introduced them to many of their foods. They were one of the few Eastern tribes to escape removal to Indian Territory in the 19th cent., but were pressed into service by the Confederacy during the Civil War. They were formerly known as the Croatan Indians and the Robeson County Indians. In 1990 there were over 50,000 Lumbee in the United States, many of mixed Native American, African, and European ancestry; they are centered in Robeson co., North Carolina. The tribe's focus on education is embodied in Pembroke State Univ., founded in 1887 as a Lumbee college and now part of the Univ. of North Carolina system.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Beaulieu, "Curly Hair and Big Feet: Physical Anthropology and the Implementation of Land Allotment on the White Earth Chippewa Reservation," American Indian Quarterly (1984): 281-314; Lowery, Lumbee Indians.
The Lumbee Indian tribe, located in Robeson County, a rural area of southeastern North Carolina, is the largest of North Carolina's eight American Indian tribes.
Kind of makes one nostalgic for armed and whooping Lumbee Indians.
Malinda Maynor Lowery explains in Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South: Race, Identity, and the Making of a Nation that the tribe took four different names between 1885 and 1956, when it adopted the name Lumbee from the Lumber River that runs through its home region (xiv).
The people now known as the Lumbee Indians are the ninth largest tribe in the US, recognized as Indians since 1885 by the state of North Carolina but not acknowledged, other than in name, by the federal government.
The Lumbee Indians of Robeson County speak a unique variation of the English language (Torbert 2001).
1) Although the audience was racially diverse, many in attendance that night were Lumbee Indians.
Then, when my graduate students and I participated in an oral history project sponsored by the American Indian Heritage Council of Charlotte, North Carolina--interviewing Native Carolinian Indian elders in their seventies and eighties--I happened across a reference to a pageant that Ella Deloria had written and produced for the amalgamated tribe of remnant Indian peoples now known as the Lumbee Indians.
The Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina, faced a precarious existence during the Great Depression.
French claims that Lumbee Indians are the offspring of "interbreeding among Indians and black slaves" and that they live in Lumberton County (p.
Three years later, on June 7, 1956, Congress passed "An Act Relating to the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.
Gerald Sider, in Lumbee Indian Histories, investigates the emergence of the Lumbee people, an indigenous tribe in North Carolina, in the context of colonial domination.