anticoagulant

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anticoagulant

(ăn'tēkōăg`yələnt), any of several substances that inhibit blood clot formation (see blood clottingblood clotting,
process by which the blood coagulates to form solid masses, or clots. In minor injuries, small oval bodies called platelets, or thrombocytes, tend to collect and form plugs in blood vessel openings.
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). Some anticoagulants, such as the coumarin derivatives bishydroxycoumarin (Dicumarol) and warfarin (Coumadin) inhibit synthesis of prothrombin, a clot-forming substance, and other clotting factors. The coumarin derivatives compete with vitamin K, which is a necessary substance in prothrombin formation (see vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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). They are only effective after the body's existing supply of prothrombin is depleted. Another anticoagulant, heparin, is a polysaccharide (see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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) found naturally in many cells. It acts in several ways: by preventing prothrombin formation; by preventing formation of fibrin, another clotting substance; and by decreasing the availability of a third clotting factor, thrombin. Heparin is obtained by extracting it from animal tissues. Anticoagulants are used to treat blood clots, which appear especially frequently in veins of the legs and pelvis in bedridden patients. Therapy helps to reduce the risk of clots reaching the lung, heart, or other organs. Heparin causes an instantaneous increase in blood-clotting time, and its effect lasts several hours.

anticoagulant

[¦an·tē‚kō′ag·yə·lənt]
(pharmacology)
An agent, such as sodium citrate, that prevents coagulation of a colloid, especially blood.

anticoagulant

1. acting to prevent or impair coagulation, esp of blood
2. an agent, such as warfarin, that prevents or impairs coagulation
References in periodicals archive ?
3] have not detected any correlation of lupus anticoagulants or anticardiolipin antibodies with survival.
Treatment was continued with aspirin in one patient who had lupus anticoagulant and protein S deficiency.
Caption: The laboratory criteria require a finding of lupus anticoagulant, medium- or high-titer (greater than 40 GPL) IgG or IgM anticardiolipin antibodies, and/or medium- or high-titer (greater than 40 GPL) anti-beta2-glycoprotein-1 antibody.
This patient had a complicated presentation and history with prolonged malaria, schistosomes, drug treatment, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and lupus anticoagulant.
The lupus anticoagulant (screening and confirmation) was tested via the chronometric method on the compact STA analyzer using the following reagents from Diagnostica Stago Laboratories: STA STACLOT DRVV screen and STA STACLOT DRVV confirm.
VKA], international sensitivity index for VKA; APC, activated protein C; APC-R, APC resistance; LA, lupus anticoagulant.
Lupus anticoagulants cause a prolongation of the aPTT, probably as a result of hypoprothrombinemia induced by antiprothrombin antibodies.
These were pericarditis, malar rash, polyarthritis, and a positive mixing test experiment indicating presence of a lupus anticoagulant (anti-phospholipid antibody subtype), a positive LE cell test and persistent lymphopenic leukopenia (1.
6 MPLU/ml) and lupus anticoagulant were positive but more specific tests for SLE such as antidsDNA and extractable nuclear antigen were negative.
Test Results Anticardiolipid antibody Positive, titre 82 GPL U/mL (antiphospholipid antibody) Lupus anticoagulant Weakly positive (antiphospholipid antibody) Anti--ds DNA Negative Anti-nuclear antibody Positive, titre 80 Complement C3 Slightly low, 0.