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Lutsk(lo͝otsk) Pol. Łuck, city (1989 pop. 198,000), capital of Volyn region (see VolhyniaVolhynia
, Ukr. and Rus. Volyn, Pol. Wołyń, historic region, W Ukraine, around the headstreams of the Pripyat and Western Bug rivers in an area of forests, lakes, and marshlands.
..... Click the link for more information. ), Ukraine, a port on the Styr River. Its industries produce scientific instruments, food products, and textiles. First mentioned in 1085 as Luchesk, it is one of the oldest cities of Volhynia. It was the main fortress of the Luchan tribe and was called Luchesky Veliki. Lutsk, together with all of Volhynia, was part of Kievan Rus until 1154, when it became the capital of the Lutsk independent principality. It was included in the Halych-Volhynian principality, was taken by Lithuania in the 14th cent., and was an important trade city from the 14th to the 16th cent. Lutsk was part of Poland from the second half of the 16th cent., was taken (1791) by Russia, was Polish again (1919–39), and was ceded (1939) to the Ukrainian SSR (since 1991, Ukraine). Architectural monuments include the walls and turrets of a castle (13th–16th cent.) and several churches (14th–17th cent.).
a city and the center of Volyn’ Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. Situated along both banks of the Styr’ river, a right tributary of the Pripiat’, the city is a highway junction and landing and has a railroad station and an airport. Population, 108,000 (1973; 56,000 in 1959).
First mentioned in the Hypatian Chronicle under the year 1085, Lutsk was part of Kievan Rus’ until its disintegration in the middle of the 12th century, when the city was absorbed into the Vladimir-Volyn’ (later, Galician-Volynian) Principality. In 1240 it was destroyed by the Mongol Tatars, and in the middle of the 14th century it was captured by the Lithuanian prince Gedymin. In 1432 the city was granted Magdeburg law. By the Union of Lublin of 1569, Lutsk was annexed by Poland, becoming the center of Wotyn Wojewodztwo. The urban poor took part in the peasant and cossack uprising led by S. Nalivaiko. In 1706 the city was destroyed by the Swedes. Lutsk was reunited with Russia in 1795, when western Volyn’ was incorporated into Russia; the city became the district capital of the Volyn’ Namestnichestvo (vicegerency), and in 1797, of Volyn’ Province.
During World War I (1914-18), Russian forces around Lutsk broke through the Austro-German front in June 1916. Soviet power was proclaimed on Nov. 13 (26), 1917. From February 1918 through August 1920, Lutsk was controlled by the Germans, the Petliura bands, and the White Poles. Liberated by the Red Army in August 1920, it was recaptured by the Poles the next month. By the Treaty of Riga of 1921, the city went to Poland as part of western Volyn’ Province. In 1934 the Lutsk Trial of the 57 (underground Communists and progressives of the Western Ukraine) was held in the city. On Sept. 18, 1939, Lutsk was liberated by the Soviet Army, and when the Western Ukraine was reunited with the Ukrainian SSR on Dec. 4, 1939, Lutsk became the center of Volyn’ Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. From June 25, 1941, through Feb. 4, 1944, the city was occupied by fascist German troops, who inflicted enormous damage.
The city and its industry were completely restored during the first postwar five-year plan. During the 1950’s and 1960’s, new enterprises were built, including plants for the manufacture of motor vehicles, instruments, electrical equipment, and reinforced-concrete products (two plants), asphalt concrete, plastic goods, and cultural-domestic articles. Other new industries include a woodworking combine, a sugar refinery, a distillery, a cereal-products combine, and garment and footwear factories. A plant for making artificial leather and footwear cardboard, a factory for spinning and weaving melange yarn, and a cloth finishing factory were under construction in 1973.
Lutsk has a pedagogical institute, a branch of the general technical department of the L’vov Polytechnic Institute, and five specialized secondary schools, including a Soviet-trade technicum and medical, pedagogical, and music schools. There is a musical drama theater, a philharmonic society, and a museum of local lore.
The old town has preserved the irregular layout of the 16th and 17th centuries. Notable architecture includes the Liubart Castle (1290-1340, with additions from the 14th to 16th centuries), the Pokrovskaia Church (15th century), the Trinity Roman Catholic Church (1606-40; architect, J. Umiński, with additions dating from the 18th century), the Vozdvizhenie Church (1619-20), a synagogue (1626-29), and a cathedral (1754). Outstanding buildings of the Soviet era include those of the oblast committee of the CPSU and the oblast executive committee (1952-54; architect, G. V. Borodin) and the Promin’ Film and Concert Hall (1970; architects, R. G. Metel’nitskii and V. K. Malovitsa). Residential housing is being built on a large scale.
REFERENCESOrda, L. M. Kratkii istoricheskii ocherk g. Lutska … Lutsk, 1897.
Luts’k (Narys istorii mista). Lutsk, 1959.
Maslov, L. Arkhitektura starogo Luts’ku. L’vov, 1939.
Kolosok, B. V., P. P. Makh, and L. P. Sanzharov. Luts’k. Kiev, 1972.