Lyme disease


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Related to Lyme disease: Chronic lyme disease

Lyme disease

or

Lyme borreliosis,

a nonfatal bacterial infection that causes symptoms ranging from fever and headache to a painful swelling of the joints. The first American case of Lyme's characteristic rash was documented in 1970 and the disease was first identified in a cluster at the submarine base in Groton, Conn., by Navy doctors who reported their findings in 1976. It became more widely known and received its common name when it struck a group of families in nearby Lyme, Conn. In the United States the disease occurs mainly in the Northeast and parts of the Midwest among people who frequent grassy or wooded areas, but black-legged ticks are found in roughly half the counties in the United States. The disease is also prevalent in N and central Europe and temperate Asia. It is caused by the spirochetes of the genus Borrelia and is transmitted by black-legged, or deer, ticks of the genus Ixodes, which live on deer, mice, dogs, and other animals.

The bite of the tick injects the bacteria into the blood. A red rash develops, often circular with a bull's-eye appearance, followed by flulike symptoms (fever, headache, and painful joints). Most people are successfully treated with antibiotics. A small number develop chronic disease with neurological problems, memory loss, arthritis, and eye inflammation. Lyme disease is sometimes accompanied by babesiosisbabesiosis
, tick-borne disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Babesia. Babesiosis most commonly affects domestic and wild animals and can be a serious problem in cattle, but since the mid-20th cent. the disease has also been found in humans.
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 or human granulocytic ehrlichiosisehrlichiosis
, any of several diseases caused by rickettsia of the genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Ehrlichiosis is transmitted by ticks. Both human forms tend to develop about nine days after a tick bite.
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, which also infect Ixodes ticks.

See also Rocky Mountain spotted feverRocky Mountain spotted fever,
infectious disease caused by a rickettsia. The bacterium is harbored by wild rodents and other animals and is carried by infected ticks of several species that attach themselves to humans.
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.

Bibliography

See P. Murray, The Widening Circle (1996); A. Karlen, Biography of a Germ (2000); J. A. Edlow, Bull's-Eye (2003).

Lyme disease

A multisystem illness caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, generally begins with a unique expanding skin lesion, erythema migrans, which is often accompanied by symptoms resembling those of influenza or meningitis. During the weeks or months following the tick bite, some individuals may develop cardiac and neurological abnormalities, particularly meningitis or inflammation of the cranial or peripheral nerves. If the disease is untreated, intermittent or chronic arthritis and progressive encephalomyelitis may develop months or years after primary infection. See Nervous system disorders

The causative agent, B. burgdorferi, is a helically shaped bacterium with dimensions of 0.18–0.25 by 4–30 micrometers. Once thought to be limited to the European continent, Lyme borreliosis and related disorders are now known to occur also in North America, Russia, Japan, China, Australia, and Africa, where B. burgdorferi is maintained and transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes, namely I. dammini, I. pacificus, and possibly I. scapularis in the United States, I. ricinus in Europe, and I. persulcatus in Asia. Reports of Lyme disease in areas where neither I. dammini nor I. pacificus is present suggest that other species of ticks or possibly other bloodsucking arthropods such as biting flies or fleas may be involved in maintaining and transmitting the spirochetes. See Ixodides

All stages of Lyme borreliosis may respond to antibiotic therapy. Early treatment with oral tetracycline, doxycycline, penicillin, amoxicillin, or erythromycin can shorten the duration of symptoms and prevent later disease. See Antibiotic

Prevention and control of Lyme borreliosis must be directed toward reduction of the tick population. This can be accomplished through reducing the population of animals that serve as hosts for the adult ticks, elimination of rodents that are not only the preferred hosts but also the source for infecting immature ticks with B. burgdorferi, and application of tick-killing agents to vegetation in infested areas. Personal use of effective tick repellents and toxins is also recommended. See Infectious disease, Insecticide

Lyme disease affects not only humans but also domestic animals such as dogs, horses, and cattle that serve as hosts for the tick vectors. Animals affected show migratory, intermittent arthritis in some joints similar to that observed in humans.

Lyme disease

[′līm di‚zēz]
(medicine)
A complex multisystem human illness caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Also known as Lyme borreliosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Despite numerous documented cases of Chronic Lyme Disease validated by lab tests, a major controversy exists in the medical community over the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme Disease with the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) on one side and insurance companies and the Infectious Disease Society (IDS) on the other.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines a case of Lyme disease as physician-diagnosed erythema migrans [greater than or equal to] 5 cm in diameter, or at least 1 objective manifestation of late Lyme disease (eg, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, or neurologic symptoms) with laboratory confirmation of Borrelia burgdorferi infection using a 2-tiered assay.
Lyme disease incidence rates by state, United States, 2005--2015.
Many people with early-stage Lyme disease develop a distinctive circular rash at the site of the tick bite, usually around three to 30 days after being bitten.
In 2016, the Northeast witnessed a rise in the number of mice in several areas indicating the region was at risk of rise in the case of Lyme disease.
While long-term antibiotic therapy has been the mainstay for Lyme disease, doctors are implementing alternative, less toxic approaches now.
If you're convinced you have Lyme disease, confirming it can be expensive, up to [euro]11,500 for blood tests at private labs in Germany and California.
If left untreated, Lyme disease, along with its symptoms, moves through three basic stages, as follows:
The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' (CSTE) case definition for Lyme disease is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and includes an approach that combines a two-tiered testing system and specific aspects of the patient's clinical history.
Kate Brown declared May as Lyme Disease Awareness Month, but Oregon is still not a Lyme-literate state.
We used the Moran's I test for spatial autocorrelation to assess geographic clustering of state incidence rates of Lyme disease and of death rates for the 4 neurologic disorders by using ArcGIS 10.