Modena

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Modena

(mô`dānä), city (1991 pop. 176,990), capital of Modena prov., Emilia-Romagna, N central Italy, on the Panaro River. It is an agricultural, commercial, and major industrial center. Manufactures include motor vehicles, cast-iron, machine tools, and leather. An Etruscan settlement, the city was the site of a Roman colony called Mutina, founded in the early 2d cent. B.C. and located on the Aemilian Way. Modena became a free commune in the 12th cent. and in 1288 permanently passed to the EsteEste
, Italian noble family, rulers of Ferrara (1240–1597) and of Modena (1288–1796) and celebrated patrons of the arts during the Renaissance. Probably of Lombard origin, they took their name from the castle of Este, near Padua.
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 family of Ferrara. The duchy of Modena, established in 1452, became the seat of the Este family after it lost (1598) Ferrara. From the fall of Napoleon I in 1814 until 1859 the house of Austria-Este ruled harshly. Among the city's notable structures are the cathedral (12th cent.), which has a massive white marble campanile (289 ft/88 m high) called the Ghirlandina; the Palazzo dei Musei (1753–67), which contains several art collections and the Este library; and the ducal palace (17th cent.). The nearby Nonantola abbey (founded 752) was a center of learning in the Middle Ages. Modena has a university.

Modena

 

a city in northern Italy, in the region of EmiliaRomagna, on the plain between the Panaro and Secchia rivers, which are tributaries of the Po. Capital of the province of Modena; population, 171,100 (1971). Modena is an important transportation and industrial center. Manufactures include sports cars, buses, tractors, railroad equipment, agricultural and printing machines, and equipment for the food industry. There are chemical, electrical engineering, cement, casting, tobacco, food, and leather footwear industries. The city has a university.

In ancient times Modena was an Etruscan town. In 183 B.C. it became the Roman colony of Mutina. The battle at Modena in 43 B.C. determined the outcome of the Mutina War. After its decline during a period of barbarian invasions, the city began to revive in the eighth century A.D., having become the residence of bishops and counts. In 1167 it joined the Lombard League. In the 12th century Modena obtained commune status and a university was founded in the city. From 1288 to 1860 it was ruled by the Este family (with interruptions: from 1306 to 1336 it was a commune, and from 1510 to 1527 it was ruled by the pope). In 1598, Modena became the center of Modena duchy, which existed until 1860 (except from 1797 to 1815, when its territory became part of states created in Italy during the French occupation). During World War II, after Italy had been occupied by German troops, the resistance movement became active in Modena Province. The city was liberated by resistance forces in April 1945.

Modena’s architectural monuments include the Romanesque cathedral (constructed from 1099 to the 13th century, architects Lanfranco and others), the Renaissance church of San Pietro (15th century), and the baroque Ducal Palace (1634, architect B. Avanzini). Also located in the city is the Este Gallery, Museum, and Medal Collection (Italian and Spanish Renaissance and baroque painting).

REFERENCES

Elenco degli edifici monumentali: Provincia di Modena. Rome, 1920.
Amorth, L. Modena capitale. Milan, 1967.

Modena

1. a city in N Italy, in Emilia-Romagna: ruled by the Este family (18th--19th century); university (1678). Pop.: 175 502 (2001
2. a popular variety of domestic fancy pigeon originating in Modena