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MAL

Mal

 

(according to some sources, Niskin or Niskinia, “a short man”), a prince of the Drevliane. He is mentioned in the Primary Chronicle under the year 945 as the leader of the Drevliane, who rebelled against the tribute levied by Great Prince Igor of Kiev. After Igor was slain, the Drevliane wanted to marry Mai to Igor’s widow, Princess Ol’ga. After ravaging the land of the Drevliane in 946, Ol’ga’s forces pressed on to Iskorosten’, where Mai was hiding. The city was captured and Prince Mai was executed on Ol’ga’s order.

REFERENCES

Shakhmatov, A. A. Razyskaniia o drevneishikh russkikh letopisnykh svodakh. St. Petersburg, 1908. Pages 340-78.
Shakhmatov, A. A. “Mstislav Liutyi v russkoi poezii.” In Sb. Khar’kovskogo istoriko-filologicheskogo obshchestva, vol. 18, 1909, pp. 82-91.

Mal

 

(Arabic, “goods,” “property,” “wealth”), a term used during feudal times in Transcaucasia, Middle Asia, Iran, and other Middle East countries to denote the following: (1) property, mainly movable assets (in distinction to mulk ); (2) money; (3) goods; (4) monetary tax, and subsequently any tax, in official documents of the 15th through 19th centuries in Iran, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

Mal-u-jihat was a land tax (synonymous to Arabic kharaj). In the khanates of Azerbaijan and Armenia during the second half of the 18th and first half of the 19th centuries, it was a land tax in kind, consisting of a portion of the harvest.

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