nitrogen mustard

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nitrogen mustard,

any of various poisonous compounds originally developed for military use (see poison gaspoison gas,
any of various gases sometimes used in warfare or riot control because of their poisonous or corrosive nature. These gases may be roughly grouped according to the portal of entry into the body and their physiological effects.
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). Like mustard gas and lewisite, it is a vesicant (blistering agent). In the form of its crystalline hydrochloride it is used as a drug in the treatment of Hodgkin's diseaseHodgkin's disease,
a type of cancer of the lymphatic system. First identified in 1832 in England by Thomas Hodgkin, it is a type of malignant lymphoma. Incidence peaks in young adults and the elderly.
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, non-Hodgkin's lymphomaslymphoma, non-Hodgkin's,
any cancer of the lymphoid tissue (see lymphatic system) in which the Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of Hodgkin's disease (the other category of lymphoma) are not present.
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, and brain tumors. Nitrogen mustards cause mutations in the genetic material of cells, thereby disrupting mitosis, or cell division. Cells vary in their susceptibility to nitrogen mustards, with rapidly proliferating tumor and cancer cells most sensitive; bone marrow, which produces red blood cells, is also sensitive, and depression of red blood cell production is a frequent side effect of nitrogen mustard therapy. The nitrogen mustards also suppress the immune response (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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).

nitrogen mustard

[′nī·trə·jən ′məs·tərd]
(organic chemistry)
Any of the substituted mustard gases in which the sulfur is replaced by an amino nitrogen, such as for methyl bis(2-chlorethyl)amine, (CH2ClCH2)2NCH3; useful in cancer research.
References in periodicals archive ?
Providing guidance on contamination avoidance, including instructions on donning MOPP gear and seeking protection with overhead cover.
We had predicted that this element would run long completing its AT, so we preplanned a chemical attack on its location the last day of the formal evaluation to force the use of MOPP 4 gear.
The tests in an environmental chamber involved three environmental conditions (neutral: 75[degrees] F & 45% Rh, jungle: 95[degrees] F & 75% Rh, and desert: 110[degrees] F & 20% Rh), two metabolic rate levels (light: 200 Watts (W) and heavy: 425 W), and three MOPP suit levels (0, 2, and 4), for a total of 18 heat stress tests for each subject.
All of those operational readiness evaluations and operational readiness inspections that we used to have in the bad old days that we complained about ad nauseam about having to conduct business in MOPP 4 Condition Black, nearly goes out the window when you've had the 13th missile hit your airfield and you're generating sorties and loading bombs.
The MOPP film has a low shear storage modulus (viscosity of the molten resin), which provides increased "flowability" and improved hermetic seals.
Department of Defense civilians get the same items as Soldiers, minus weapons and MOPP gear.
MOPP gear is being phased out at a rate of 20 percent a year.
Weaver and a team of five soldiers in full MOPP gear were sent to investigate the situation.
After the completion of IPDS I and II, the ground war started, and all units went into MOPP 1.
When we were talking to Ed Bradley, yes, we did tell him that we went to MOPP 4 when we were at Khamisiyah," former Specialist 4 Dan Cook told me.