invertebrate

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invertebrate

(ĭn'vûr`təbrət, –brāt'), any animal lacking a backbone. The invertebrates include the tunicatestunicate
, marine animal of the phylum Chordata, which also includes the vertebrates. The adult form of most tunicates (also called urochordates) shows no resemblance to vertebrate animals, but such a resemblance is evident in the larva.
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 and lanceletslancelet,
name for small, fishlike lower chordate (see Chordata), also called amphioxus; it shows many affinities with the vertebrates. There are about 30 lancelet species, most belonging to the genus Brachiostoma (formerly Amphioxus).
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 of phylum Chordata, as well as all animal phyla other than Chordata. The major invertebrate phyla include: the sponges (PoriferaPorifera
[Lat.,=pore bearer], animal phylum consisting of the organisms commonly called sponges. It is the only phylum of the animal subkingdom Parazoa and represents the least evolutionarily advanced group of the animal kingdom.
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), coelenterates (CnidariaCnidaria
or Coelenterata
, phylum of invertebrate animals comprising the sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids. Cnidarians are radially symmetrical (see symmetry, biological).
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), echinoderms (EchinodermataEchinodermata
[Gr.,=spiny skin], phylum of exclusively marine bottom-dwelling invertebrates having external skeletons of calcareous plates just beneath the skin. The plates may be solidly fused together, as in sea urchins, loosely articulated to facilitate movement, as in sea
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), flatworms (PlatyhelminthesPlatyhelminthes
, phylum containing about 20,000 species of soft-bodied, bilaterally symmetrical, invertebrate animals, commonly called flatworms. There are four classes: the free-living, primarily aquatic class, Turbellaria, and Trematoda, Cestoda, and Monogenea, which are
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), roundworms (NematodaNematoda
, phylum consisting of about 12,000 known species, and many more predicted species, of worms (commonly known as roundworms or threadworms). Nematodes live in the soil and other terrestrial habitats as well as in freshwater and marine environments; some live on the deep
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), segmented worms (AnnelidaAnnelida
[Lat., anellus=a ring], phylum of soft-bodied, bilaterally symmetrical (see symmetry, biological), segmented animals, known as the segmented, or annelid, worms.
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), mollusks (MolluscaMollusca
, taxonomic name for the one of the largest phyla of invertebrate animals (Arthropoda is the largest) comprising more than 50,000 living mollusk species and about 35,000 fossil species dating back to the Cambrian period.
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), and arthropods (ArthropodaArthropoda
[Gr.,=jointed feet], largest and most diverse animal phylum. The arthropods include crustaceans, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, and the extinct trilobites.
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). Invertebrates are tremendously diverse, ranging from microscopic wormlike mezozoans (see MezozoaMezozoa
, name of an animal subkingdom and also of the subkingdom's only phylum. The mezozoans are simple parasitic marine wormlike animals of only 20 to 30 cells, which are differentiated only into reproductive cells and ciliated cells.
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) to very large animals such as the giant squidsquid,
carnivorous marine cephalopod mollusk. The squid is one of the most highly developed invertebrates, well adapted to its active, predatory life. The characteristic molluscan shell is reduced to a horny plate shaped like a quill pen and buried under the mantle.
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. Approximately 95% of all the earth's animal species are invertebrates; of these the vast majority are insectsinsect,
invertebrate animal of the class Insecta of the phylum Arthropoda. Like other arthropods, an insect has a hard outer covering, or exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed legs. Adult insects typically have wings and are the only flying invertebrates.
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 and other arthropods. Invertebrates are important as parasites and are essential elements of all ecological communities.

Bibliography

See A. Kaestner, Invertebrate Zoology (3 vol., 1967–70); R. D. Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology (5th ed. 1987); R. Buchsbaum et al., Animals without Backbones (3d ed. 1987).

invertebrate

[in′vərd·ə‚brət]
(invertebrate zoology)
An animal lacking a backbone and internal skeleton.

invertebrate

any animal lacking a backbone, including all species not classified as vertebrates
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At each location, macroinvertebrates were collected with a Surber sampler (area: 900 [cm.
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Studies that focused on benthic macroinvertebrates usually found that sampling sites immediately downstream of dams were characterised by lower taxonomic diversity than unaffected sites upstream or sites further downstream where dam effects have attenuated (Cereghino nt al.
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