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Madoera(both: mädo͝o`rä), island (1990 pop. 3,015,124), c.1,760 sq mi (4,560 sq km), Indonesia, near the northeast coast of Java, from which it is separated by Madura Strait. The island and its offshore islets are part of the province of East Java. Pamekasan is the capital; Sumenep is a major town. Principal products are salt, obtained from pans along the coast, and fish. Cattle are extensively raised, and bull races are held annually. The island is densely populated. The generally chalky soil limits agriculture, and much food has to be imported. From the 11th to the 18th cent., Madura was dominated by the rulers of Java. It was made a part of Indonesia in 1949.
an island in the Malay Archipelago near the northeastern coast of Java, between the Bali and Java seas. Madura belongs to Indonesia. Area, approximately 4,500 sq km. Relief is mostly hilly (elevations to 471 m); the island is composed primarily of marls and limestones, with widely developed karst. The climate is subequatorial, with monsoons. There are deciduous tropical forests, thickets of shrubbery, and savannahs on Madura. Much of the island is cultivated (rice, corn, tobacco, cassava), and many areas are artificially irrigated. Livestock is raised (meat is exported), and there is fishing and salt mining. The chief city is Pamekasan.