He covers a seafaring and trading people, staple cargoes, Madurese
prahus and their home coasts, opportunity and illegality, incomes and profits, and entrepreneurship and risk.
Within days, isolated killings perpetrated by both sides had developed into a one-sided massacre of more than 500 Madurese
Pontianak and Sambas, West Borneo, experienced horrible ethnic conflict between the Dayaks and the Madurese
instead to show so-called normal application, having the reduplicated forms (41c) and (42c) rather than (41b) and (42b), the domain of the assimilation constraint would need to include reduplicated expressions.
Other conflicts involving members of different religions occurred in various parts of the country, including disputes in Kalimantan between ethnic Madurese
, who are predominantly Muslim, and indigenous Dayaks, who are predominantly Christian.
Dayak violence against the Madurese
brought the world's journalists to Central Kalimantan in February and March 2001.
In addition, tensions remain over the recent independence of East Timor, and ethnic conflict is of real concern in Kalimantan where, since 1998, the indigenous Dayak communities have launched brutal assaults on Madurese
had been pushed to the less-populated island in a government effort to disperse its population from crowded Java and Madura.
Clashes between Borneo's indigenous people, Dayaks and Madurese
, took place after a Madurese
allegedly burned down a Dayak's house following a quarrel.
By the late 1920s, Indonesian nationalists had decided that this language, now to be called 'Indonesian', was the true national language; after that many 'big' languages like Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese
and Buginese were turned into 'dialects' or mere 'regional languages', though they are mostly older than 'Malay', and some have literary traditions much more impressive than that of Malay.
Since then, his successor has had to watch the rise of two other murderous separatist groups--in Aceh and Papua--as well as rising sectarian violence between Christians and Muslims, Dayaks and Madurese
1% Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Korean & others HONG KONG Chinese 95% Other 5% INDIA Indo-Aryan 72% Dravidian 25% Mongoloid & other 3% INDONESIA Javanese 45% Sundanese 14% Madurese
& Coastal Malays 15% Other 26% JAPAN Japanese 99.