Interesting, these authors also estimate that these two orders have higher speciation rates but higher extinction rates with respect to other magnoliids, including the orders Magnoliales
Amborellales 1 1 Nymphaeales 3 2 Austrobaileyales 3 2 Chloranthales 1 1 Magnoliids Cannellales 2 Piperales 5 3 Laurales 7 2 1 Magnoliales
6 3 1 Monocots Acorales 1 Alismatales 13 2 Petrosaviales 1 Dioscoreales 5 2 Pandanales 5 2 Liliales 10 4 Asparagales (incl.
This family is assigned to the clade Magnoliid according to the APG III system (2009) and according to Cronquist (1981) it was in subclass Magnoliidae, and order Magnoliales
Within Magnolidae, it was possible to distinguish between Laurales represented by Ocotea fulvescens and Mollinedia pinchotiana and Magnoliales
represented by Xylopia bocatorena.
El genero Illicium originalmente estuvo colocado en Magnoliaceae y posteriormente fue segregado como una familia (Illiciaceae) dentro de Magnoliales
For example, non-molecular-based studies have suggested that the monocots are most closely related to the Ranales (Ranunculales, Nymphaeales, Magnoliales
, Ceratophyllum et al.
Hay tapete plasmodial en varias monocotiledoneas (algunas Alismatideas, Araceae y Poaceae; Furness & Rudall, 2001 b) y en miembros de los ordenes Laurales (Atherosperma, Hernandiaceae y varios generos de Lauraceae, incluido Hyphodaphnis; Sastri, 1963; Heo & Tobe, 1995; vease revision en Furness & Rudall, 2001 a), Magnoliales
(varias Annonaceae incluidas Annona y Polyalthia; Bhandari, 1971) y quizas Winterales (Pseudowintera; Bhandari, 1963).
Arranged according to Cronquist's system, the examples are chosen to span the greatest diversity, from primitive to the most highly specialized, and include, for the taxonomist and floral ecologist, many fascinating discussions of various Magnoliales
As an evolutionary old family the Annonaceae exhibit floral morphological characters which they partly share with other representatives of the order Magnoliales
and further basal angiosperms, such as hermaphrodititic flowers, a usually trimerous perianth, and numerous stamens and carpels with a helical arrangement along an elongated, mostly convex receptacle.
Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the Magnoliales
There are three competing hypotheses about their closest relatives: (1) Members of the order Magnoliales
(Cronquist, 1981; Dahlgren, 1983; Leins & Erbar, 1995; Takhtajan, 1996), based mainly on the presence of P-type sieve-element plastids (Behnke, 1988, 1991), ethereal oil cells, aporphine alkaloids, and several carpels that are apocarpous and pluriovulate.
Table 1 Geographical Distribution and Taxonomic Diversity of Genera With Endemic Species on Hainan Family, tree of life Number of endemic endemic Worldwide placement, and genus species in Hainan Island/ approximate approximate number of number of endemic species in China species (including Hainan) Acanthaceae, Asterids Cosmianthemum 1/3 9 Bremekamp Peristrophe Nees 1/2 25 Staurogyne Wallich 4/8 110 Annonaceae, Magnoliales