Mahmud of Ghazna

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Mahmud of Ghazna

(mämo͞od`, gŭz`na), 971?–1030, Afghan emperor and conqueror. He defeated (c.999) his elder brother to gain control of Khorasan (in Iran) and of Afghanistan. In his raids against the states of N India, Mahmud, a staunch Muslim, destroyed Hindu temples, forced conversions to Islam, and carried off booty and slaves. Hindus especially abhorred his destruction of the temple to Shiva at Somnath in Gujarat. Mahmud's territorial gains lay mainly W and N of Afghanistan and in the Punjab. At Ghazna (see GhazniGhazni
, city (1981 est. pop. 31,200), capital of Ghazni prov., E central Afghanistan, on the Ghazni River. Located on the Kabul-Kandahar trade route, Ghazni is a market for sheep, wool, camel hair cloth, corn, and fruit. The famed Afghan sheepskin coats are made in the city.
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), his capital, he built a magnificent mosque. His successors in the Ghaznavid dynasty, which Mahmud founded, ruled over a reduced domain with the capital at Lahore until 1186.


See biographies by M. Nazim (1931) and M. Habib (2d ed. 1967); C. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids (1973) and The Later Ghaznavids (1977).

References in periodicals archive ?
It was once the headquarters of Bhatti kings who were defeated by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni and they fled to the area in south of Multan.
The first figure in our series is Mahmud of Ghazni.
It was something exceptional being done in the city so it became talk of the town and the news reached the palace of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni.
Leaders such as Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Tughluq expanded Muslim political domains without altering the religious or social fabric of Indian society.
The Persian epic poet Ferdowsi is said to have been cheated of his promised reward by Mahmud of Ghazni on the completion of the Shahnameh in 1010 CE.
Also now in ruins is the Ghazni Museum which includes the Museums of Islamic and Pre-Islamic Art and National Museum of Historical Monuments, and a library named after Albironi, the great medieval scholar who produced a monumental commentary on Indian philosophy and culture that was commissioned by his patron, Mahmud of Ghazni (971-1030).
The chapter devotes itself largely to how Mahmud of Ghazni looted "India and Saurashtra ( in Gujarat)".
Though commissioned by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni to write a poetic version of an old book with expected applaud for the king Ferdowsi takes on a far greater task incorporating Persian history, and his desire for a new Persian identity.
It was also the historical land where the Muslim conquerors, Mahmud of Ghazni, Babur of Ferghana and Akbar fought their battles preparatory to the conquest of South Asia.
Examples of recording events to manipulate history are revealing, as for instance Baron Ellenborough's (Governor General of India, 1841-44) ruse in passing off the doors from the tomb of Mahmud of Ghazni as those plundered from the temple of Somnath.
1 His nose; 2 Hamid Karzai, leader of Afghanistan; 3 German geographer Baron Ferdinand von Richtofen named the road; his grandson won fame as the Red Baron in World War I and as Snoopy's famous nemesis in Peanuts; 4 Salman Rushdie, Shame; 5 The ruba'i, a popular four-line form whose plural is ruba'iyat; 6 Beijing; 7 Afghanistan's first Muslim dynasty, the Ghaznavid, was founded by Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a slave; 8 Alexander the Great and his troops; 9 The Prophet had no sons.
It flourished during the reign of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, who ruled from 998 to 1030, and was a man of literature and poetry, with more than 700 poets living in his palace.