Maikop Culture

Maikop Culture

 

an archaeological culture of the second half of the third millennium B.C. that was widespread in the foothills of the northern Caucasus. It was named after the Maikop kurgan, which was investigated in 1897.

The Maikop culture is represented by numerous barrows and by a number of fortified settlements. Stone tombs, including dolmens, appeared during the later stage of its development. The principal implements and weapons were shaft-hole stone axes, insets for knives and sickles, and arrowheads, as well as copper axes, hoes, gouges, knives, daggers, pitchforks, and spearheads. Various ornaments indicate links between the Maikop culture and the Orient. The pottery, some of which was made on the potter’s wheel, is primarily red and polished; sometimes it is decorated. The tribes of the Maikop culture engaged in stock raising and farming and lived in a primitive communal system. However, the rich burial inventory of some barrows attests to considerable property inequality.

REFERENCES

Iessen, A. A. “K khronologii ‘bol’shikh kubanskikh kurganov’.” In the collection Sovetskaia arkheologiia, fasc. 12. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Krupnov, E. I. Drevniaia istoriia i kul’tura Kabardy. Moscow, 1957.
Formozov, A. A. “Periodizatsiia poselenii Maikopskoi kul’tury.” In the collection Istoriko-arkheologicheskii sbornik. [Moscow, 1962.]
Formozov, A. A. Kamennyi vek i eneolit Prikuban’ia. Moscow, 1965.
Munchaev, R. M. “Pamiatniki maikopskoi kul’tury v Checheno-Ingushetii.” Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 1962, no. 3.

E. I. KRUPNOV

References in periodicals archive ?
In contrast to previous research (Skripnikova 2007: 40), very few type I terraces could be associated with 13 hitherto discovered Maikop culture settlements (Figure 5).
He suggests that the Maikop culture of the Caucasus region, which is known to have been contemporary with the middle and late Uruk periods of southern Mesopotamia (p.
From an interregional perspective the discovery of pottery of group D is significant in that it relates to the pre-Maikop and Early Maikop culture of the northern Caucasus.
The first phase may have been a grave of the Early Bronze Age Maikop Culture which was destroyed by later graves.
In the same area a barrow grave of the Novosvobodnaya phase of the younger Maikop culture near Krasnodar must be somewhat older (Rezepkin 1992: 64, figure 5).