Maimonides


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Maimonides

(mīmŏn`ĭdēz) or

Moses ben Maimon

(mī`mən), 1135–1204, Jewish scholar, physician, and philosopher, the most influential Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages, b. Córdoba, Spain, d. Cairo. He is sometimes called Rambam, from the initials of the words Rabbi Moses ben Maimon. His organization and systemization of the corpus of Jewish oral law, is called the Mishneh Torah [the Torah Reviewed], known in English as the Strong Hand, and is still used as a standard compilation of halakahhalakah
or halacha
[Heb.,=law], in Judaism, the body of law regulating all aspects of life, including religious ritual, familial and personal status, civil relations, criminal law, and relations with non-Jews.
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. He also produced a number of discourses on legal topics; a work on logic; a treatise on the calendar; and several medical books, including an important work on hygiene. His great philosophical work is the Moreh Nevukhim (1190, tr., Guide for the Perplexed, 1963), written in Arabic, in which he explained the esoteric ideas in the Bible, formulated a proof of the existence of God, expounded the principles of creation, and elucidated baffling metaphysical and religious problems. The Moreh Nevukhim, which reflects Maimonides's great knowledge of Aristotelian philosophy and attempts to reconcile it with the tenets of Jewish theology, dominated Jewish thought, helped introduce Aristotle to medieval Christian philosophers, and has exerted a profound influence upon Christian thinkers.

Bibliography

See biographies by S. Zeitlin (2d ed. 1955), A. J. Heschel (1981), and M. Halbertal (2013); studies by J. Melber (1968), M. Fox (1990), and S. B. Nuland (2005).

Maimonides

 

(Moses ben Maimon). Born Mar. 30, 1135, in Córdoba; died Dec. 13, 1204, in Fustat, near Cairo. Jewish philosopher of the Middle Ages.

In 1148, Maimonides left Spain because of the Almohad dynasty’s persecution of Jews; he lived in Morocco and Palestine, settling in Egypt in 1165. In 1187 he became a court physician to Sultan Saladin of Cairo. Maimonides’ chief philosophical work, Guide of the Perplexed, was published in Arabic in Egypt in 1190 and subsequently translated into Hebrew and Latin (a Russian translation is in S. N. Grigorian’s Iz istoriifilosofii Srednei Azii i Irana 7-12 vv., 1960).

Maimonides is the most outstanding representative of Jewish philosophy of the Middle Ages. He based his system on the teachings of Aristotle as interpreted by Arab thinkers. By synthesizing revelation and speculation, the Bible and Aristotle, Maimonides went beyond the limits of orthodoxy; his rationalism and “purification” of truth from miracle brought him the enmity of the adherents to religious tradition. He exerted an influence on the development of Scholasticism in the 13th-15th centuries, particularly influencing the medieval Aristotelians Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas.

REFERENCES

Istoriia filosofii, vol. 1. Moscow, 1940. Pages 454-57.
Moses ben Maimon: Sein Leben, seine Werke und sein Einfluss, vols. 1-2. Leipzig, 1908-14.
Bamberger, F. Das System des Maimonides. Berlin, 1935.
Sarachek, J. Faith and Reason: The Conflict Over the Rationalism of Maimonides. Williamsport, Pa., 1935.
Baeck, L. Maimonides. Diisseldorf, 1954.
Silver, D. J. Maimonidean Criticism and Maimonidean Controversy, 1180-1240. Leiden, 1965.
Zac, S. Maimonide. Paris, 1965.

S. S. AVERINTSEV

Maimonides

also called Rabbi Moses ben Maimon. 1135--1204, Jewish philosopher, physician, and jurist, born in Spain. He codified Jewish law in Mishneh Torah (1180)
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86) He added, "The teaching of the second-century sage, Rabbi Joshua, 'There are righteous among the gentiles who have a share in the world to come,' was slightly but significantly broadened by Maimonides into the generalization, 'The righteous among the gentiles have a share in the world to come.
Rabbi Hayyim Palache (1788-1869) rejects the whole idea that Maimonides considered Ezra to have been a high priest and explains that Rambam had something entirely different in mind.
Davies argues that Maimonides does not deny perfection of God; instead, Maimonides holds that since the words we use to express perfection derive from our experience, they cannot apply to God (chapter 4).
Stroumsa attributes to Maimonides both a panoramic gaze and a careful pen.
Shortly before we initiated our studies at Maimonides, Witkin and Lewis (1967) showed percipients an emotionally threatening film before they went to sleep, for example, a monkey hauling her dead baby about by the limbs while nibbling at it, or an Australian aboriginal puberty rite in which an incision was made across the surface of an initiate's penis with a sharp stone.
40) Maimonides provides that killing such a person is a capital crime under the Noahide offense of bloodshed.
Like other teaching hospitals, Maimonides had to comply not only with ACGME requirements, but also with state guidelines on resident hours.
6) And the creation-prophecy puzzle has something in common with the providence-Job puzzle, apart from their formal similarity as parallel lists: in both puzzles Maimonides introduces Epicurean views, only to dismiss them as irrelevant.
Maimonides astonishingly omitted creation in Foundations of the Law, despite the fact that he taught elsewhere that creation is undoubtedly a foundation (qa'ida [yes, that all-too-familiar word for "base"]) of the law of Moses our Master and second to the foundation of the unity of God.
It is important to note how Maimonides praises the writings of al-Farabi, Ibn Baja and Ibn Roshd; how Rabbi Yehuda Halevy adopted the principle of the "mystical taste" from the ideas of al-Ghazali and how the Sufi Muslim doctrine of the "objectives of the organs and the hearts" became the basis for the book "Guide to the Duties of the Heart" by our Rabbi Bachaya Ibn Pakuda.
Maimonides holds that the obligation to establish a judicial system exists only in the Land of Israel, (12) and, as such, it may be seen as one implication of applying the principle of Kahal.
Hartung cites Maimonides and other rabbinic sources, including the Mishna and Talmud in support of his thesis of Israelite in-group and out-group thinking.