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(1) Typesetting process of making a printing form of typeset pages in a format using galley proofs of the text and following elements of design.
In its preparation and result, makeup determines the number of pages in an edition and lines on a page and the distribution of headings, illustrations, title components, and footnotes and other reference materials, as well as the dimensions of blank spaces (sinks) on the initial pages. Makeup is done in a printing plant according to publisher’s dummies or layouts using galleys and engraving plates. In printing an edition by the nongalley method, makeup is done by layout on the original (manuscript); in makeup by means of manuscript dummy the dummy is prepared for the printing press in the form of a page dummy with its precise and final design and the layout of all the materials. In editions that are printed by the flat (offset) method and deep-etch printing certain elements of makeup are made more precise in the process of mounting negatives and diapositives of the text and illustrations; however, even in this case makeup is determined by a dummy that has been made up previously. The principal task of makeup is to reveal the logical structure of the text and ensure the readability and necessary proportions of the pages and the edition as a whole. The text is made up in one, two, three, or more columns.
A text with illustrations presents special demands for makeup, since the illustrations must be placed as close as possible to the illustrated text. Each illustration must be positioned in such a way that the pages and spreads are balanced and organized. There are several basic schemes for making up illustrations: open, in which the illustration is placed along the top or bottom edge of the page; closed, in which the illustration is bordered at the top and bottom by the text; and runaround, in which the illustration is surrounded by the text on all sides or the illustrations are distributed in the margins or bleed into them.
Makeup must meet a number of demands, including constructional compositional requirements to ensure maximum convenience of use of the publication, bring out visually the structure and composition, and define the significance and coordination of all components; and economy—to provide for compact placing of materials, thus attaining a high percentage of use of the area of the paper. In addition, there are production and technical demands to correspond to the characteristics of production and its technology and equipment; and aesthetic demands—to ensure the expressiveness of the internal form of the publication, the beauty of its proportions, and the graphic unity of all components of its design.
In recent years, the principles of artistic and technical design and construction have begun to be used in dummying publications, as well as in the construction of editions on the modular system, under which the proportions and position of the components are mathematically determined.
The makeup of journals and newspapers has its own specifications, which proceed from the demands of effectiveness and the structure of the materials—numerous, short, varied texts and illustrations. The task of makeup in journals is to design the material of an issue in a compositionally complete manner, to divide one material from another, and at the same time, to maintain the graphic and logical connection among all the components. The printing of journals in offset and photogravure permits a freer use of the area of the spread and a more varied distribution of materials, as well as easier use of color.
Newspaper makeup is marked by a great variety in the distribution of materials: consideration is given to their effectiveness by assigning prominent positions to the most important articles and placing the texts in the places to which readers are accustomed. Long articles, essays, and stories are sometimes made up in what is called a spread—they occupy all the columns at the bottom of the page. In various newspapers makeup is handled differently, but in all instances it is necessary to ensure compact distribution of the materials and maintenance of the unity of separate newspaper pages as well as that of the issue as a whole.
(2) A proofsheet that provides a chance to correct mistakes.
REFERENCESPakhomov, V. Knizhnoe iskusstvo, vol. 1. Moscow, 1961.
Bel’chikov, I. F. Tekhnicheskoe redaktirovanie knig i zhurnalov. Moscow, 1968.
Tekhnologicheskie instruktsii po nabornym protessam. Moscow, 1969.
G. V. ALIAMOVSKAIA
What does it mean when you dream about makeup?
Makeup in a dream can imply a cover-up to conceal one’s inner self, indicating discomfort about revealing oneself to the world. At the opposite extreme, the dreamer may feel that putting on makeup is putting on one’s best face, presenting oneself in all one’s glory and accomplishments.