Muqurra

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Muqurra

 

(also Mukurra), an early feudal state in the Nile Valley, between the Second Cataract of the Nile River and the mouth of the Atbara River, in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The state existed from the sixth to approximately the 16th century. Its capital was the city of Old Dongola. The population, primarily comprising the Nobatae, accepted Christianity in the sixth century. In the seventh century, Muqurra extended its authority to include the Christian kingdom of Alodia (Alwa).

Muqurra flourished in the 12th century, principally owing to trade in cattle, iron, and slaves. Beginning in the 13th century, there were recurrent invasions by Arabs from the north, leading to the Arab colonization of Muqurra and the dissemination of Islam in the state.

REFERENCES

Drevnie i srednevekovye istochniki po etnografii i istorii narodov Afriki iuzhnee Sakhary. Vol. 1 : Arabskie istochniki VII-X vekov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960. Vol. 2 : Arabskie istochniki X-XII vekov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Arkell, A. J. A History of the Sudan: From the Earliest Times to 1821 [2nd ed.]. London, 1961.
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Essays include Coptic ostraca from the Hagr Edfu, Macedonius (the first bishop of Philae), the beginnings of Christianity in Nubia, veneration of saints, the church at Dayr Anba Hadra, monastic life in Makuria, preserved objects, a three-dimensional digital reconstruction of a significant church, and the conservation of the mural paintings at St.
What is perhaps a new beginning actually draws the volume to a close: the emergence of a late antique 'Noubadian' kingdom in Lower Nubia, following the disintegration of a unified Meroitic kingdom, latterly incorporated (as a frontier province) into the Christian kingdom of Makuria.
Three independent kingdoms were then established following the decline of the Meroi Kingdom, namely, Maris or Nobatia in the far north, Makuria further south, and Alwa or Alodia around the confluence of the two Niles.
Among the topics are an amphora with a Graeco-Nubian inscription found at Dongola, a graffito in the upper church at Banganarti suggesting a man from Provence on the Middle Nile, Qasr Ibrim's last land sale in AD 1463, a king of Makuria in Kordofan, the Nubian tradition of Coptic funerary inscriptions, and the Old Nubian memorial for King George.