Mandingo

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Mandingo

 

(1) The self-designation (also, Malinke, Man-ding, Wangara, Mandinga, Mali) of a group of peoples living in West Africa—in southern Gambia, northern and northeastern Republic of Guinea, western Mali, the Republic of the Ivory Coast, Senegal, and Portuguese Guinea (Bissau)—who speak the Malinke language. The group also includes the Koranko and Wasulunka in the Republic of Guinea, the Manyanka in Liberia, and several other groups.

(2) A name used primarily in French works to refer to a large group of closely related peoples: the Malinke proper, or Manding, Mandinga), the Bambara (Banmana), and the Dinla. All of them live along the upper course of the Senegal and Niger rivers; they constitute the main population of western Mali, northeastern Republic of Guinea, southern and eastern Senegal, and certain regions of the Republic of the Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Portuguese Guinea (Bissau). Total population, approximately 4.2 million (1970, estimate).

The Mandingo speak languages related to the northern group of Mande languages. Most of the Mandingo are Muslims; old animistic beliefs and ancestor worship are still practiced in some areas. The chief occupation is farming (millet, corn, rice, kidney beans); livestock raising (goats, sheep, donkeys, poultry) is poorly developed; the Diula engage in trade. The basic form of Mandingo rural village settlements is a group of mud huts surrounded by a mud wall. A kindred group, usually a large patriarchal family, lives in each village. Traditional social relations, such as secret societies, caste differences, and age-class systems, are still partially retained in many regions. However, all of these ancient institutions are gradually disappearing.

According to legend, the historical center of the formation of the Mandingo peoples was located along the upper reaches of the Niger River, where, in the eighth century, the political unification of the Mandingo was achieved with the founding of the Mali state.

REFERENCES

Sund’iatta: Mandingskii epos. Leningrad-Moscow, 1963. (Translated from French.)
Labouret, H. Les Manding et leur langue. Paris, 1934.
Labouret, H. Paysans d’Afrique occidentale. Paris [1941].

D. A. OL’DEROGGE


Mandingo

 

a group of languages that includes the Bambara, Malinke, and Diula dialects (Mande-tan group of the Mande languages). Malinke is spoken in Senegal, Sudan, the Republic of the Ivory Coast, Gambia, and Guinea (1.1 million people); Bambara is spoken in Senegal, Sudan, Guinea, and Upper Volta; Diula is spoken in the Republic of the Ivory Coast and Upper Volta. There are approximately 4.2 million speakers of Mandingo languages (1970, estimate).

Vowels are distinguished according to degree of opening (degree of aperture of the speech passage), for example, bere “stick,” bεrε “stone.” Other phonetic features include the presence of long vowels (ba “big,” “mother”), nasalized vowels (bo “to go out,” b5 “room”), and the labialized consonant gb. Suffixes are used in word formation and for inflection. Concept alienability and inalienability categories occur.

REFERENCES

Delafosse, M. La Langue mandingue et ses dialectes, vol. 1. Paris, 1929.
Delaforge. Grammaire et méthode Bambara, 6th ed. Paris, 1947.

I. N. TOPOROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
What the new political circumstances in the North brought about on the religious front had less to do with Islam and more to do with the dozoya, the ways of the traditional Malinke or Senoufo hunters, whose sudden rise to public prominence struck all Ivorians.
Los malinke o mandingas actuales ascienden a tres millones de personas que habitan en Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leona, Liberia, Burkina-Fasso y Costa de Marfil.
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Le prenom du protagoniste du roman de Kourouma, Fama Doumbuya, a un signifie specifique en malinke (ex.
Kora's silky vocal stylings meander over a wide range, from French to languages not often heard on Beirut stages -- apparently including Malinke, Peul and Sousou.
The most significant ethnic groups include the Bambara, Soninke, Khassonke, Malinke, Fula, Voltaic, Songhai, Tuareg, and Moor.
The Bambara, Malinke, and Dogon are farmers; the Fulani, Maur, and Tuareg are herders; the Soninkes or Saracoles are traders; while the Bozo are fishers.
Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Paul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, and other 5%.
En Francia los reclamos han tenido tintes chovinistas contra Estados Unidos mientras que en Guinea se han reavivado viejos conflictos etnicos, pues para El grupo mayoritario, los malinke, Diallo es una mentirosa y para la etnia a la que ella pertenece, los fulani, es una victima.
Kourouma's child soldier, Birahima, foulmouthed and unapologetically brash, is a self-proclaimed "Black Nigger African Native"--so self-named for his dual lack of education and command of French, as well as for his penchant for Malinke swear words (fafaro
Parran; trumpeters Baikida Carroll, and Floyd LeFlore; trombonist Joseph Bowie; drummers Bensid Thigpen and Charles "Bobo" Shaw; bassist Arzinia Richardson; stage directors Malinke Robert Elliot, Vincent Terrell, and Muthal Naidoo; poets Ajule (Bruce) Rutlin and Shirley LeFlore; dancers George Collins and Luisah Teish; and painters Emilio Cruz and Oliver Jackson.
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