Stéphane Mallarmé

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Mallarmé, Stéphane

 

Born Mar. 18, 1842, in Paris; died Sept. 9, 1898, in Valvins, department of Seine-et-Marne. French poet.

The son of a civil servant, Mallarmé became a teacher of English in 1863. After first modeling his verse on C. Baudelaire and the Parnassians, Mallarmé became one of the leading poets of French symbolism in the 1870’s and 1880’s. Despite his democratic attitudes, dissatisfaction with bourgeois reality, search for an ideal (poems of the 1860’s-1870’s, such as “Azure,” “Windows,” “The Wind From the Sea”), and readiness to evaluate the multicolored beauty of the world impressionistically (“The Afternoon of a Faun,” 1876, to which music was written by C. Debussy, 1892), Mallarmé arrived at a tragic conception about the split between poetry and life (“The Swan,” 1885). He came to the idea of an extremely hermetic poetry (Prose for des Esseintes, 1885) that would convey the pure idea by means of symbols alone (the article “Mystery in Poetry,” 1896). Bourgeois critics saw Mallarmé only as a symbolist and aesthete. However, Mallarme was also attracted to the real (Occasional Poems, 1880-98; published, 1920) and to comprehensive classical forms of poetry.

The essence of Mallarmé’s poetry is contained in the narrative poem “A Cast of the Die” (1897), a merciless, self-critical summary of the attempts of symbolist poetry to rise above reality; the poem turns to those abstract and metaphorical forms of realistic reflection of the objective world that in the 20th century came to be characteristic of G. Apollinaire, V. Nezval, P. Neruda, and French poetry of the Resistance and subsequent period.

WORKS

Oeuvres complètes. Edited by H. Mondor and G. Jean-Aubry. Paris, 1956. (With bibliography.)
In Russian translation:
[Verse.] In Voloshin, M. Stikhotvoreniia 1900-1910. Moscow, 1910.
[Verse.] In Briusov, V. Poln. sobr. soch. i perevodov, vol. 21. St. Petersburg, 1913.

REFERENCES

Istoriia frantsuzskoi literatury, vol. 3. Moscow, 1959.
Verlaine, P. Les Poètes maudits. Paris, 1884.
Royère, J. Mallarmé. Paris, 1927.
Mondor, H. Vie de Mallarmé. Paris, 1941.
Roulet, C. Eléments de poétique mallarméenne … . Neuchatel [1947].
Dujardin, E. Mallarmé par l’un des siens. Paris, 1952.
Aragon, L. Journal d’une poésie nationale. Lyon, 1954.
Piselli, F. Mallarmé e l’estetica. [Milan, 1969.]

N. I. BALASHOV

References in periodicals archive ?
In translating Baudelaire, Mallarme, and Rimbaud, Carson chose to engage with three poets who all, separately, dabbled with numerology as what Baudelaire refers to as a 'strange architecture' for individual poems and for collections.
Mallarme was a poet who believed that "an order innate to the book of verse exists inherently or everywhere, eliminating chance.
Mallarme shifts our engagement with philosophical questions of necessity (mechanistic determinism) onto the field of language where they problems of chance are all posed as challenges to meaning as form.
It is specifically the theme and techniques of suggestion which Hayman considers in Mallarme and Joyce.
For the musician in all of us, the symbolist movement is equated with Debussy's Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un faune as well as the desire of poets such as Verlaine and Mallarme to create music through their use of words and sounds.
Salome, que no poema de Mallarme e Herodiade, nos remete a seducao e ao poder da arte, mas ao mesmo tempo traz consigo qualquer coisa de macabro e cruel pela morte e pela violencia a ela associadas.
In "Le Phenomene futur," Mallarme writes of "a wretched crowd, vanquished by immortal sickness and the sin of centuries, of men besides their sickly accomplices, pregnant with the miserable fruits from which the earth will perish"(Mallarme qtd.
In Surprised in Translation, Caws examines instances of slippage in Mallarme's own translations into the French and translations of Mallarme into English, translations into the French of Virginia Woolf's work, Pound's translations of Rimbaud and Arnaut Daniel, translations by Samuel Beckett, and Bonnefoy's translations of Shakespeare, Keats, and Yeats.
Returning to Foucault's commentary on Boulez, I briefly examine important settings of Char and Mallarme, showing how they share features of a Foucauldian analysis: conjunctions between words, image and music are never subordinated to conventional meaning but are "justified only by the new necessity they have established".
With 126 artists' books created between 1874 and 1999, the exhibition traces the development of book art from the first collaborations of Stephane Mallarme and Edouard Manet through the elaborate collages of Michel Butor and Bertrand Dorny.
Crediamo non gli fosse indifferente certo Mallarme (che, d'altra canto si trova anche in Rimbaud).