(redirected from Mamluk Sultanate)




(măm`əlo͞ok) [Arab.,=slaves], a warrior caste dominant in Egypt and influential in the Middle East for over 700 years. Islamic rulers created this warrior caste by collecting non-Muslim slave boys and training them as cavalry soldiers especially loyal to their owner and each other. They converted to Islam in the course of their training.

Mamluk Rule

The Mamluks were first used in Muslim armies in Baghdad by the Abbasid caliphs in the 9th cent. and quickly spread throughout the Muslim world. They served the Ayyubid sultans from the 12th cent. onward and grew powerful enough to challenge the existence of the rulers who were theoretically their masters. Aybak, the first Mamluk to actually rule, persuaded (1250) the mother of the last Ayyubid sultan to marry him after she had murdered her son. For more than 250 years thereafter, Egypt and Syria were ruled by Mamluk sultans supported by a caste of warrior slaves, from which the sultans were chosen. The Mamluks took advantage of their power to become the principal landholders in Egypt.

The Mamluk sultans are usually divided into two dynasties, the Bahris (1250–1382), chiefly Turks and Mongols, and the Burjis (1382–1517), chiefly Circassians who were chosen from the garrison of Cairo. The Bahri sultans were usually selected from a few chief families, but during Burji times there was scant respect for hereditary principle in the selection of rulers. Neither dynasty was able to exercise more than a limited power over the turbulent Mamluk soldiers. The sultans reigned, on the average, less than seven years and usually met violent ends. In spite of the dangers that threatened the sultans at home, they usually conducted a vigorous foreign policy. They defeated the last of the Crusaders and repulsed the Mongol invasion of Syria. At times they held all Palestine and Syria and the holy places of Arabia.

One of the strongest Mamluk rulers, Baybars IBaybars I
, 1223–77, Mamluk sultan (1260–77) of Egypt and Syria. Once a Turkish slave, Baybars became a commander of the Ayyubid and then Mamluk armies. In 1260 he led Mamluk troops to victory against the Mongols at the Battle of Ayn Jalut.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1260–77) defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in Syria (1260), the first serious setback they had received. Baybars also installed a relative of the last Abbasid caliph of Baghdad as a Mamluk puppet caliph at Cairo. The long reign of al-Nasir from 1293 to 1340, although interrupted three times, was one of ostentation and luxury that helped to undermine the Bahri dynasty. The Burji period that followed was one of bloodshed and treachery. It was marked by war against TimurTimur
or Tamerlane
, c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He was the son of a tribal leader, and he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz Khan.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and by the conquest (1424–26) of the Christian-held island of Cyprus.


Toward the end of the 15th cent. the Mamluks became involved in a war with the Ottoman Turks who captured Cairo in 1517. The Mamluks favored the cavalry and personal combat with sword and shield. They were no match for the Ottomans, who skillfully used artillery and their own slave infantry, the JanissariesJanissaries
[Turk.,=recruits], elite corps in the service of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). It was composed of war captives and Christian youths pressed into service; all the recruits were converted to Islam and trained under the strictest discipline.
..... Click the link for more information.
, to defeat the Mamluks. The Ottoman ruler, Selim ISelim I
(Selim the Grim) , 1467–1520, Ottoman sultan (1512–20). He ascended the throne of the Ottoman Empire by forcing the abdication of his father, Beyazid II, and by killing his brothers.
..... Click the link for more information.
, put an end to the Mamluk sultanate and established a small Ottoman garrison in Egypt. He did not, however, destroy the Mamluks as a class; they kept their lands, and Mamluk governors remained in control of the provinces and were even allowed to keep private armies.

In the 18th cent., when Ottoman power began to decline, the Mamluks were able to win back an increasing amount of self-rule. In 1769 one of their number, Ali Bey, even proclaimed himself sultan and independent of Constantinople. Although he fell in 1772, the Ottoman Turks still felt compelled to concede an ever greater measure of autonomy to the Mamluks and appointed a series of them as governors of Egypt. The Mamluks were defeated by Napoleon INapoleon I
, 1769–1821, emperor of the French, b. Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal." Early Life

The son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte (or Buonaparte; see under Bonaparte, family), young Napoleon was sent (1779) to French military schools at
..... Click the link for more information.
 during his invasion of Egypt in 1798, but their power as a class was ended only in 1811 by Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali,
1769?–1849, pasha of Egypt after 1805. He was a common soldier who rose to leadership by his military skill and political acumen. In 1799 he commanded a Turkish army in an unsuccessful attempt to drive Napoleon from Egypt.
..... Click the link for more information.


See studies by Sir William Muir (1896, repr. 1973), N. A. Ziadeh (1953), D. Ayalon (1956), and J. Glubb (1974).

References in periodicals archive ?
Robert Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages: The Early Mamluk Sultanate 1250-1382 (London: Croom Helm, 1986), 20.
Sultan Bayezid II was the son of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, who conquered ystanbul in 1453, and the father of Yavuz Sultan Selim, who conquered the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt between 1516 and 1517.
One of the merits of Meloy's book is to remind us that the state of relationships between two powers such as the Mamluk sultanate and the amirate of Mecca was more complex than we generally assume.
According to the DSP leader, who is strongly convinced that the name Yavuz has strong sectarian connotations as he was also the Ottoman ruler who, after having beaten the Mamluks on the battleground, took over the caliphate from the Mamluk Sultanate, it will mainly be through the efforts of some leaders of the Sunni faith in Turkey who favor a culture of tolerance and living together that changing the name of the bridge will most likely be possible.
Rather, I wish to discuss a unique and significant passage in an Arabic text emanating from the Mamluk Sultanate.
Irwin, The Middle East in the Middle Ages: The Early Mamluk Sultanate 1250-1382 (London: Croom Helm, 1986), 166; Holt, The Age of the Crusades, 127; Levanoni, A Turning Point in Mamluk History, 89; W.
The first was the systemic political instability of the Mamluk sultanate, which made taking up a government post tantamount to a game of Russian roulette: in an atmosphere of intense factionalism, one could always find oneself out of work, in exile, or worse if the opposition were to prevail.
Although living outside the borders of the Mamluk sultanate, he was familiar with Sufi trends in Aleppo, Damascus, and Cairo.
David King has not only outlined the different characteristics of the mathematical-astronomical traditions in the various parts of the Islamic realm, such as Yemen, the Maghrib, and during the Mamluk sultanate, but he was also the first to pay closer attention to the Islamic tradition of folk astronomy, which depends on simple arithmetical methods and rules of thumb rather than on accurate and systematic observations, computations, and tables.
47) Tarmashirin maintained diplomatic relations with the Mamluk sultanate, but these do not seem to have been very close.
Indeed, the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and Syria faced especially severe difficulties.
That takeover was not merely the outcome of a power struggle among local forces, not even one of provincial powers defeating an imperium, but a return to, and a rejuvenation of, an older local order, that of the Mamluk sultanate, which ruled Egypt and the regional empire from the mid-thirteenth to the early sixteenth centuries.