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a specific social stratum of modern capitalist society, including hired professional managers (enterprise directors and directors of separate subdivisions of concerns, trusts, syndicates, and so on). Even in the mid-19th century K. Marx noted the importance of the professional manager, whose very existence proves the parasitism of the capitalist proprietor, who is removed from participation in the production process. The increasing number of corporations has significantly strengthened the role of managers.

Under conditions of modern state-monopoly capitalism there has been a sharp increase in the monopolies’ need for skilled specialists in the area of enterprise organization and management. Managers have received broad independence in administration and in the resolution of highly important financial and economic questions. In many developed capitalist countries (including the USA and France) special schools for skilled administrators have been organized, usually at the major universities.

Certain bourgeois scholars (for example, G. Means and A. Berle of the USA) argue that the enhanced role of professional managers in contemporary capitalist society and the transfer of management functions to professional managers prove that owners of capital have lost control over production and that capitalism itself has been saved from its inherent defects and contradictions. The flimsiness of bourgeois theories about the separation of power from the right of capital ownership becomes apparent in analyzing the actual functioning of capitalist enterprises. Managers do not have power in relation to owners of capital, who continue to exercise decisive influence on the management process.


References in classic literature ?
Nicholas was not much disposed to sleep--being in truth too anxious-- so, after a little demur, he accepted the offer, and having exchanged a shake of the hand with the young Crummleses, and the manager having on his part bestowed a most affectionate benediction on Smike, he sat himself down opposite to that gentleman by the fireside to assist in emptying the bowl, which soon afterwards appeared, steaming in a manner which was quite exhilarating to behold, and sending forth a most grateful and inviting fragrance.
But, despite the punch and the manager, who told a variety of stories, and smoked tobacco from a pipe, and inhaled it in the shape of snuff, with a most astonishing power, Nicholas was absent and dispirited.
Salt meat and new rum; pease-pudding and chaff-biscuits,' said the manager, taking a whiff at his pipe to keep it alight, and returning to his work of embellishment.
You need be able to,' said the manager, 'if you go on board ship; but you won't.
We'll have a new show-piece out directly,' said the manager.
Then, in order to teach the Donkey that it was not good manners to bray before the public, the Manager hit him on the nose with the handle of the whip.
No one knew it, however, least of all the Manager, who, cracking his whip, cried out:
Forty current engineers, 32 recent graduates, 15 past graduates, and 25 career field managers and homeport supervisors (see page 60 for definitions) were surveyed and interviewed.
Students shadowing the BOMA/NY volunteers received a basement-to-boardroom primer by sitting in on international conference calls, joining managers as they reviewed budget spread sheets, and joining the engineering staff in their daily routine maintaining the inner workings of a building's mechanical systems.
This is because the method is holistic and provides an in-depth view of situations and events, which is the kind of understanding that environmental managers and many other disciplines require.
As mainframe computer systems were making the transition from colossal machines to more personalized and controllable systems, IT managers lacked the capability to manage the cumbersome environments.
InvestorForce will offer its users an array of Zephyr-hosted charts supporting multiple funds, managers and products.