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a specific social stratum of modern capitalist society, including hired professional managers (enterprise directors and directors of separate subdivisions of concerns, trusts, syndicates, and so on). Even in the mid-19th century K. Marx noted the importance of the professional manager, whose very existence proves the parasitism of the capitalist proprietor, who is removed from participation in the production process. The increasing number of corporations has significantly strengthened the role of managers.

Under conditions of modern state-monopoly capitalism there has been a sharp increase in the monopolies’ need for skilled specialists in the area of enterprise organization and management. Managers have received broad independence in administration and in the resolution of highly important financial and economic questions. In many developed capitalist countries (including the USA and France) special schools for skilled administrators have been organized, usually at the major universities.

Certain bourgeois scholars (for example, G. Means and A. Berle of the USA) argue that the enhanced role of professional managers in contemporary capitalist society and the transfer of management functions to professional managers prove that owners of capital have lost control over production and that capitalism itself has been saved from its inherent defects and contradictions. The flimsiness of bourgeois theories about the separation of power from the right of capital ownership becomes apparent in analyzing the actual functioning of capitalist enterprises. Managers do not have power in relation to owners of capital, who continue to exercise decisive influence on the management process.


References in classic literature ?
But the manager succeeded in persuading him to recall the encore, and said the company would feel sufficiently rewarded and complimented in the mere fact that the encore was desired by his Majesty, without fatiguing him with a repetition to gratify their own vanity.
Pedro Gailhard himself, the late manager of the Opera.
Philip's experience had made him doubtful whether even then they would engage him; but Athelny, representing himself as a person of consequence in the firm, insisted that the manager could refuse him nothing.
I was elected by acclamation to the office of general manager of the entertainments; and I did my best to deserve the confidence reposed in me; leaving literature and science, so far as I was concerned, perfectly at liberty to advance themselves or not , just as they liked.
His example was soon followed by other managers, though the favorite place for the theaters soon came to be the 'Bankside,' the region in Southwark just across the Thames from the 'city' where Chaucer's Tabard Inn had stood and where pits for bear-baiting and cock-fighting had long flourished.
Still a manager was a manager, and I said I would soon see whether this was the relative I was looking for, if he would be good enough to give me the name of that branch.
The pale and youthful father of a family, with the face of Shelley, who wrote vaudeville turns for a living and blank verse tragedies and sonnet cycles for the despair of managers and publishers, hid himself in a concrete cell with three-foot walls, so piped, that, by turning a lever, the whole structure spouted water upon the impending intruder.
He gave a concert at the Opera House on Monday night, and he and his manager spent Saturday and Sunday at our comfortable hotel.
The manager perched himself, book in hand, on a stool close in front of the stage.
Accordingly we offered our services to one and were accepted; our Company was indeed rather small, as it consisted only of the Manager his wife and ourselves, but there were fewer to pay and the only inconvenience attending it was the Scarcity of Plays which for want of People to fill the Characters, we could perform.
Some people say that the manager just plunges his hand into the heap and takes the first that comes.
Out of office hours, in the circle of his friends, he had no doubt the manager was a delightful and entertaining companion; but in his private room his conversation was less enjoyable.