Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.


(măncho͞o`kwō), former country, comprising the three provinces of NE China, traditionally called Manchuria. The Japanese invaded Manchuria in 1931 and founded Manchukuo in 1932. Changchun, the capital, was renamed Xinjing [Chinese,=new capital]. Pu YiPu Yi
or Henry Pu-yi,
Manchu Aisin Gioro, 1906–67, last emperor (1908–12) of China, under the reign name Hsuan T'ung. After his abdication, the new republican government granted him a large government pension and permitted him to live in the
..... Click the link for more information.
, last of the Manchu (Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
..... Click the link for more information.
) dynasty of China, ruled as regent and emperor. Manchukuo, ostensibly an independent Manchu state, was a Japanese puppet-state. Of the major countries only Japan, Italy, and Germany extended diplomatic recognition; few foreigners were allowed into Manchukuo. The Japanese military kept strict control of the administration and fought a continuing guerrilla war with native resistance groups. To develop Manchukuo as a war base, the Japanese greatly expanded industry and railroads. After World War II, Chinese sovereignty was reasserted over the area.



a puppet state created by the Japanese imperialists in Northeast China—Manchuria. It existed from March 1932 until August 1945. Manchukuo was exploited as a colony and used as a military base of operations for aggression against the rest of the territory of China, the USSR, and the Mongolian People’s Republic. Area, more than 1 million sq km; population, about 30 million. The capital was Ch’angch’un, which was renamed Hsinching (New Capital).

Having established a pretext by accusing the Chinese of destroying the roadbed of the South Manchurian Railroad, which belonged to Japan, in the Shenyang (Mukden) region, Japan sent troops into Northeast China on the night of Sept. 18, 1931. Following orders from the Kuomintang government, the Chinese troops did not offer resistance. As a result, in a matter of a few months, with virtually no opposition, Japan took over the entire territory of China’s three northeastern provinces (and in 1934 the province of Jehol as well) and installed a puppet administration there, which in March 1932 proclaimed the formation of “independent” Manchukuo. P’u I, the last emperor of the Manchurian Ch’ing dynasty (which ruled in China between 1644 and 1911; the formal renunciation of the throne took place in February 1912), became the ruler (“chief executive”) of Manchukuo. P’u I had connections with Japanese intelligence. On Mar. 1, 1934, he was declared emperor of Manchukuo. In fact, all the affairs of Manchukuo were directed by Japanese advisers and civil servants, who occupied most of the important positions. The Hsiehhohui Society (the Society of Consent) was formed by the Japanese and carried on intensive propaganda for the idea of “Japan’s great mission in Asia”; it played a large part in ideological work with the population.

A military-police regime was instituted in Manchukuo. During the occupation of Northeast China the Japanese militarists increased the size of the part of the Kwantung Army that was stationed in Manchukuo from 12,000 to 780,000 men. (The army of the puppet state was raised to 170,000.) In addition, they created a system of fortified regions on the border with the USSR and constructed a network of strategic highways, railroads, airfields, and other military objectives. Military provocations against the USSR and the Mongolian People’s Republic were carried out by Japan from the territory of Manchukuo numerous times between 1933 and 1939; among them were the major provocations in 1938 near Lake Khasan and in 1939 in the region of the Khalkhin-Gol River.

Japan plundered the natural wealth of Northeast China and established various enterprises to extract and process natural raw materials and produce pig iron, steel, and synthetic fuel for Japan’s own military needs. Compulsory labor and a system of agricultural shipments at low prices were instituted. The best land was turned over to Japanese colonists. The harsh exploitation and police brutality caused the local population to resist. From 1932 onward there were many operating partisan detachments; in 1935 they were united in the Northeast Combined Anti-Japanese Army, which was led by the Chinese communists. By 1941, however, most of the partisan detachments had been crushed by the Japanese. Korean partisan detachments also operated in the regions bordering on Korea.

In August 1945 in the concluding phase of World War II (1939-45), Northeast China was liberated from Japanese occupation by the Soviet Army, bringing an end to the existence of Manchukuo.


Sapozhnikov, B. G. Iapono-kitaiskaia voina i kolonial’naia politika laponii v Kitae (1937-1941). Moscow, 1970.
P’u I. Pervaia polovina moei zhizni. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from Chinese.)



, Manchoukuo
a former state of E Asia (1932--45), consisting of the three provinces of old Manchuria and Jehol
References in periodicals archive ?
Annika Culver expands on work done by previous scholars such as Louise Young and Barak Kushner about Japanese state-building techniques in its client state of Manchukuo in what is now the northeastern part of the People's Republic of China.
This was to be achieved by a tripartite relationship under Japanese leadership of Japan, Manchukuo, and China.
234) However, due to pragmatic needs, the ROC and Manchukuo concluded a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on postal services in 1934.
of North Carolina-Pembroke) investigates Japanese intellectuals who, in the context of Japanese-occupied Manchukuo in China, either underwent a political conversion or at least expressed tacit support for Imperial Japan in the build up to World War II.
Working inward, he then shows how these strands are tightly wound together under the "new bureaucrats" (reform bureaucrats is the more accurate term) and their partners in Manchukuo, first under Hoshino Naoki and Furumi Tadayuki and subsequently under Kishi, Ayukawa, and Amakasu.
Manchukuo was dissolved, and Manchuria was returned to China; Japan renounced all claims to Formosa; Korea was occupied and divided by the U.
The movie depicts the compelling personal tragedy of Pu Yi, the last emperor of China, who was overthrown in 1911 and wound up as a Japanese puppet-prince in the doomed creation called Manchukuo.
The Manchurian icon, whose extraordinary life spawned several books and films and popular curiosity over her fate, was a prominent security official in the WWII-era Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in northeastern China.
The example of nonrecognition of Manchukuo is often invoked as such an example in the era of the League of Nations.
He followed the imperial family to Manchuria after Puyi was installed in 1932 as puppet emperor of a Japanese colonial state known as Manchukuo.
THIRTY million people, the inhabitants of the new state of Manchukuo, are awaiting tomorrow's dawn, when the first ceremonies in connection with the enthronement of Mr Pu Yi, former boy Emperor of China, as Emperor of the new state will take place.
However, this quickly expanded to include the use of sport to showcase the nation to the international community and, in the case of China's lone athlete, Liu Changchun, at the Los Angeles Games in 1932, to prevent the Japanese from attempting to use him to legitimize their occupation of Manchukuo.