Mandalay


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Mandalay

(măn'dəlā`, măn`dəlā'), city (1983 pop. 532,895), capital of Mandalay region, central Myanmar, on the Ayeyarwady River. The second largest city in Myanmar, it is the terminus of the main rail line from Yangon and the starting point of branch lines to Lashio and Myitkyina. As a city it dates from c.1850. It was the capital of the Burman kingdom, replacing AmarapuraAmarapura
, town (1981 est. pop. 10,600), Mandalay region, central Myanmar, on the Ayeyarwady River. It is a silk-weaving center and has varied handicraft industries. Amarapura was founded in 1782 and was twice (1783–1823 and 1837–60) the capital of Myanmar.
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, from 1860 to 1885, when it was annexed to British Burma. A major Buddhist religious center, the city is noted for the Rakhine (or Arakan) pagoda, which is built around an ancient shrine. The group of sacred buildings known as the Seven Hundred and Thirty Pagodas was erected in the reign (1853–78) of King Mindon. Mandalay was heavily damaged in World War II.

Mandalay

 

a city in Burma, on the Irrawaddy River; capital of the district of Mandalay. Population, 360,000 (1969). Mandalay is an important transportation junction and river port. A major industrial center, Mandalay produces cotton textiles, silk, and lumber. It has railroad and ship repair shops. Silk items, pottery, and carvings of wood and stone are hand crafted.

Mandalay was founded in 1857. It was the capital of the independent Burmese kingdom of the Konbaungs, from 1857 to 1885, at which time it was the cultural and artistic center of Burma, as well as one of the kingdom’s religious (Buddhist) centers. During British colonial rule from 1886 to 1947, the city played an important role in the national liberation movement of the Burmese people. After Burma achieved its independence in 1948, Mandalay, like Rangoon, became a major industrial, cultural, and scientific center. In 1958 a university was founded in the city. Mandalay also has medical, technical, and agricultural institutes.

Mandalay has a regular layout. A hill is situated in the center of the city with numerous stupas, temples, pagodas, and a citadel (2 km by 2 km). A late-19th-century wooden palace was once inside the citadel (destroyed by fire in 1944). To the northeast of the citadel there are temple complexes, the largest being the Kuthodaw, which was built in the second half of the 19th century. To the south and west of the city center there are residential districts consisting mainly of two- and three-story brick houses and one-story wooden houses. In this region there are also a number of monasteries and temples (including the Mahamyamuni, early 20th century).

REFERENCE

Duroiselle, C. The Mandalay Palace. Rangoon, 1963.

Mandalay

a city in central Myanmar, on the Irrawaddy River: the second largest city in the country and former capital of Burma and of Upper Burma; Buddhist religious centre. Pop.: 927 000 (2005 est.)
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