Mandan

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Mandan

(măn`dăn, –dən), indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). The Mandan were a sedentary tribe of the Plains area and were culturally connected with their neighbors on the Missouri River, the ArikaraArikara
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Archaeological evidence shows that they occupied the banks of the upper Missouri River since at least the 14th cent.
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 and the HidatsaHidatsa
, Native North Americans, also known as the Minitari and the Gros Ventre. Their language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages).
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. The Mandan had certain distinctive cultural traits, which included a myth of origin in which their ancestors climbed from beneath the earth on the roots of a grapevine. According to tradition, at one time the Mandan lived to the east, but their movements in historic times were westward up the Missouri River. By the mid-18th cent., they lived in nine villages near the mouth of the Heart River in S central North Dakota. After having suffered severely from smallpox and the attacks of the Assiniboin and the Sioux, the Mandan moved farther up the Missouri River to a point opposite the Arikara villages. Here the Mandan survivors merged into two villages on opposite sides of the Knife River. They were visited (1804) by Lewis and Clark, who said that they numbered some 1,250. In 1837, after an epidemic of smallpox and cholera, the Mandan were reduced to some 150, all dwelling in a single village. When the Hidatsa moved (1845) from the Knife River region N to the Fort Berthold trading post, the few Mandan joined them. A large reservation was set aside (1870) for the Mandan, the Hidatsa, and the Arikara in North Dakota (Fort Berthold Reservation). There were some 1,200 Mandan in the United States in 1990.

Bibliography

See G. Catlin, O-Kee-Pa, a Religious Ceremony, and Other Customs of the Mandans (1867, centennial ed. by J. C. Ewers, 1967), E. A. Fenn, Encounters at the Heart of the World: A History of the Mandan People (2014).


Mandan

(măn`dăn, –dən), city (1990 pop. 15,177), seat of Morton co., S N.Dak., on the Missouri River opposite Bismarck; inc. 1881. A railroad division point, it is the distribution center for a grain, livestock, and dairy region. The city has a large cattle market and food-processing plants. Manufactures include wood and metal products and tile. Lewis and Clark wintered there (1804–5) in the Mandan Native American villages. A state industrial school is in the city, and a U.S. agricultural experiment station is nearby.
References in periodicals archive ?
Before the Mandans had significant contact with the White man, they were a powerful tribe," she states.
American frontier painter George Catlin drew his now famous pictures of the Mandans when he lived with them in the summer of 1832.
Evans had exaggerated all his adventures,mentioning umpteen sightings of the elusive tribe by trappers until he actually reached the Mandans, when he categorically dismissed the existence of a Welsh tribe and advised against any similar sortie in the future.
Most famously he showed the Mandan language to have many remarkable similarities to Welsh.
It certainly was odd that the Mandans lived in circular houses similar to ones found in Wales, rather than tepees; that they used a boat very similar to a Welsh coracle; that they tended the land rather than hunted; and that there are a lot of words in their language similar to Welsh.
I'm no historian,but on the balance of the evidence available to us, I'd say that the link with the Mandans has an 80pc probability of being true.
They discovered America and befriended the Mandan Indians.
Because Mandan Indians are still known today as the white-haired Indians.
There is no way to tell if this reflects a Mandan style or if it was simply the preference of the owner or wearer.
It is certainly possible that some Mandan people lived at Fort Totten in 1913 and that one of them was named Short Bull.
And, he says, the light-skinned appearance of the Mandans may have convinced explorers they were of Welsh descent.