(redirected from Mander)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Wikipedia.


system of trusteeships established by Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of NationsLeague of Nations,
former international organization, established by the peace treaties that ended World War I. Like its successor, the United Nations, its purpose was the promotion of international peace and security.
..... Click the link for more information.
 for the administration of former Turkish territories and of former German colonies. As finally adopted, the mandates system was principally the work of the South African statesman Gen. Jan Christiaan SmutsSmuts, Jan Christiaan
, 1870–1950, South African statesman and soldier, b. Cape Colony.

Of Boer (Afrikaner) stock but a British subject by birth, he was educated at Victoria College (at Stellenbosch) and at Cambridge, where he won highest honors in law.
..... Click the link for more information.
. It marked an important innovation in international law with respect to the treatment of dependent territories. A mandated territory differed from a protectorateprotectorate,
in international law, a relationship in which one state surrenders part of its sovereignty to another. The subordinate state is called a protectorate. The term covers a great variety of relations, but typically the protected state gives up all or part of its
..... Click the link for more information.
 in that obligations were assumed by the mandate power to the inhabitants of the territory and to the League, which supervised mandates; it differed from a sphere of influence in that the guardians had an acknowledged right to raise and expend revenues, to appoint officials, and to make and enforce laws. The mandate system was administered by the League of Nations through a Permanent Mandates Commission of 11 members.

The mandated territories were divided into three classes, according to their economic and political development and their location, and were then assigned to individual powers. Class A consisted of Iraq (British), Syria and Lebanon (French), and Palestine (British). The provisional independence of these former Turkish provinces was recognized, subject to administrative control until they could stand alone. By 1949 all former Class A mandates had reached full independence. Class B was composed of the former German African colonies, South West Africa excepted—Tanganyika and parts of Togoland and the Cameroons (British), Ruanda-Urundi (Belgian), and the greater part of Togoland and the Cameroons (French). The establishment of military or naval bases in these regions by the mandatories was forbidden; commercial equality with other nations and native rights were guaranteed. In Class C were placed South West Africa (South Africa), former German Samoa (New Zealand), New Guinea (Australia), Nauru (Australia), and former German islands in the Pacific, north of the equator (Japan). While fortification of these mandates was forbidden and native rights were guaranteed, these areas were to be administered by the mandatories as integral parts of their empires.

With the creation of the United NationsUnited Nations
(UN), international organization established immediately after World War II. It replaced the League of Nations. In 1945, when the UN was founded, there were 51 members; 193 nations are now members of the organization (see table entitled United Nations Members).
..... Click the link for more information.
, the mandates system was superseded by the trusteeship system (see trusteeship, territorialtrusteeship, territorial,
system of UN control for territories that were not self-governing. It replaced the mandates of the League of Nations. Provided for under chapters 12 and 13 of the Charter of the United Nations, the trusteeship system was intended to promote the welfare
..... Click the link for more information.
). All remaining mandated territories became trust territories except South West Africa (now Namibia), whose status was contested by South Africa and the United Nations until it became independent in 1990.


See Q. Wright, Mandates under the League of Nations (1930, repr. 1968).

References in periodicals archive ?
Our greatest achievement appears to be the ability of our economic system to create incredible wealth for a small minority of the population, Mander argues.
Mander narrates the story of a disabled widow Urmila whose ' hunger is not just for food but also for love'
Whether this reflects more negatively on the past than on the present is a matter of importance, and it is in the first lines of Chapter 9, "Aesthetics and Literature," that Mander points to the importance: "One of the features which most distinguishes British Idealism from any philosophy today was that it offered a comprehensive Weltanschauung, or worldview; a universal scheme capable of application to any sphere upon which the human mind might latch.
Key to understanding this, according to Mander, is Norris' strange, Platonic doctrine of truth.
Van Mander tells that Bruegel instructed his wife to destroy many of his sketches because of the unstable political situation in 1569.
Mander and his associates speculate that sleep deprivation leads to the release of tumor necrosis factor-[alpha], which triggers cortisol release, and that, in turn, causes insulin resistance.
It features short chapters from some of the leading leftwing thinkers in the field, including Ralph Nader, Richard Barnet, John Cavanagh, Robin Broad, Jerry Mander, Kirkpatrick Sale, and Jeremy Rifkin.
The Mander Centre currently comprises over 100 retail units, including Boots, BHS, JD Sports, New Look, Starbucks, Clarks, H Samuel, The Entertainer and Costa Coffee.
This cast of Rock Form was bought direct from Hepworth in 1968 for the Mander Centre through her friend Stanley Sellers, the architect of the centre.
Earlier this year we launched the Home for Good campaign to gain a clearer picture of homelessness in our city, Mr Mander said.
Mander Hadley & Co, which is based in The Quadrant, has been selected as one of more than 200 new locations for the massive expansion of the country's first national legal brand, QualitySolicitors.
WFI president GS Mander claims that Sumit does not even figure in the list of contenders for a spot in the 74kg freestyle.