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(măn`ĭthō), fl. 300 B.C., Egyptian historian, a priest at Heliopolis, under Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II. His work, covering the history of Egypt from legendary times to 323 B.C., is written in Greek and is known to us only through the later works of Josephus, Sextus Julius Africanus, and Eusebius. Manetho's arrangement of 30 dynasties, in spite of limitations—some dynastic changes are not recorded; some dynasties continued through two or three of Manetho's—has proved to be a convenient device and is still in use.



Born in the second half of the fourth century B.C.; died at the beginning of the third century B.C. Ancient Egyptian historian; head priest in Heliopolis; a native of the city of Sebennytos.

Manetho wrote the History of Egypt in Greek; it has survived only as excerpts quoted by Flavius Josephus and the church historians Africanus and Eusebius. The division of Egyptian history into 30 dynasties and three periods—the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom—was made by Manetho (and is accepted by modern scholarship, with certain refinements, to the present day). The Soviet academician V. V. Struve has proved that Manetho used reliable sources: most of the information he presents is accurate.


[Works]. With an English translation by W. G. Waddell. Loeb Classical Library, London, 1948.


Struve, V. V. “Manefon i ego vremia.” Zapiski kollegii vostokovedov. Vol. 3, issue 1, Leningrad, 1928. Vol. 4, Leningrad, 1930.
Struve, V. V. “Podlinnyi Manefonovskii spisok tsarei Egipta i khronologiia Novogo tsarstva.” Vestnik drevnei istorii, no. 4, 1946.
References in periodicals archive ?
Manetho listed the name of Queen Twosert as the last ruler of the 19th dynasty, according to author and researcher Ismail Hamed.
Parallels are often drawn with the Egyptian priest Manetho, who wrote in Greek at about the same time as Berossus, but Egypt was rapidly hellenized after the founding of Alexandria.
Josephus quotes Manetho in his work Contra Apion in order to discredit Manetho's version of the Exodus.
Manetho is said to have lived in the 3rd century AD, which should be BCE.
Drawing upon royal lists recorded in an epitome by the Hellenized Egyptian priest Manetho (third century BCE), Syncellus arranged rulers of the Nineteenth Dynasty, ending with a pharaoh whom Homer (Odyssey, IV, 126) called Polybus but according to Manetho's epitomator, Julius Africanus, was named "Thuoris.
Like the High Priest Manetho of Sebennytus of the third century B.
484-430 BCE; an outsider to Egyptian culture) or the Egyptian Manetho (ca.
The content was falsely attributed to Berosus, Fabius Pictor, Cato, Manetho and others.
Then he considers how Herodotus, Manetho, and other historians used the same or similar sources in their histories of Egypt.
During the early years of Ptolemaic rule, the priest Manetho sought to explain the various aspects of Egyptian culture to interested Greeks.
They did not flee Egypt, wrote the Egyptian priest Manetho, 'they were expelled because they were lepers'.