Manuel


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Manuel

 

In Byzantium:

Manuel I Comnenus. Born 1123 (?) in Constantinople; died there Sept. 24, 1180. Emperor from 1143.

Manuel I drew his support from the Comnenus clan as well as from the provincial petty and middle feudal lords and the provincial cities. Manuel sought to consolidate feudal landownership; in accordance with the decrees of 1158 and 1170 land could be obtained only by those of senatorial rank or by members of the stratiotai (military) class. He attracted foreign troops into his service, including Turks. In 1158 he forbade the churches and monasteries to expand their holdings. Manuel freed the empire from the power of the Venetian merchants (mass arrests of Venetian merchants were carried out in March 1171); he entered into an alliance directed against Venice with Genoa (1169) and Pisa (1170). Manuel unsuccessfully attempted to restore Byzantine domination in Italy and Egypt. He supported lurii Dolgorukii in his struggle for the Kievan throne. He conducted successful wars that led to the recognition by Hungary (1164) and Serbia (1172) of the sovereignty of the Byzantine Empire. On Sept. 17, 1176, he suffered defeat at the hands of the Seljuks at Myriocephalum (in Asia Minor), after which he was compelled to cede to them the fortifications at Dorylaeum and Sublaeum.

Manuel II Palaeologus Born June 27, 1350; died Aug. 21 (?), 1425, in Constantinople. Emperor from 1391.

Manuel II came to the throne during the period when a considerable portion of Byzantium had been captured by the Turks; he was, in fact, a vassal of Bajazet I. The Crusaders who were summoned by Manuel to his aid suffered defeat at Nicopolis on Sept. 25, 1396. In 1399-1403, Manuel traveled throughout Italy, France, and England in search of assistance. After the defeat of the Turkish troops by Timur in the battle of Ankara (1402), Manuel strengthened his position in the Peloponnesus, and in 1403 he returned Thessalonica to the Byzantine Empire. In 1424 he was again obliged to pay tribute to the Turks. In 1425 he abdicated from the throne and became a monk (under the name of Matthew). Manuel supported the humanistic movement, and he was also well known as a writer.

REFERENCES

Vasil’ev, A. A. Puteshestvie vizantiiskogo imperatora Manuila II Paleologapo Zapadnoi Evrope (1399-1403). St. Petersburg, 1912.
Dennis, G. T. The Reign of Manuel II Palaeologus in Thessalonica, 1382-1387. Rome, 1960.
References in classic literature ?
Father Manuel Baradas and all the company, who had waited for us a considerable time on the top of the mountain, came down when they saw our tents, and congratulated our arrival.
Lusitania had a Viriatus, Rome a Caesar, Carthage a Hannibal, Greece an Alexander, Castile a Count Fernan Gonzalez, Valencia a Cid, Andalusia a Gonzalo Fernandez, Estremadura a Diego Garcia de Paredes, Jerez a Garci Perez de Vargas, Toledo a Garcilaso, Seville a Don Manuel de Leon, to read of whose valiant deeds will entertain and instruct the loftiest minds and fill them with delight and wonder.
Manuel Lisa, a Spaniard by birth, and a man of bold and enterprising character, who had ascended the Missouri almost to its source, and made himself well acquainted and popular with several of its tribes.
You are with me in the dory - Manuel my name, and I come from schooner "We're Here" of Gloucester.
It was at Para also that we engaged Gomez and Manuel, two half-breeds from up the river, just come down with a cargo of redwood.
Manuel Fonseca, the contortionist, exploded in the bar-room of the Hotel Annandale, after refusing to drink with Duckworth.
How did Manuel manage to become the owner of a house in Paris?
It is a sad long list of the names of men, beginning with Manuel Micheltoreno, one time Mexican "Governor, Commander-in-Chief, and Inspector of the Department of the Californias," who deeded ten square leagues of stolen Indian land to Colonel Don Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo for services rendered his country and for moneys paid by him for ten years to his soldiers.
After three days' travelling we arrived at Socego, the estate of Senhor Manuel Figuireda, a relation of one of our party.
Senhor Manuel was then making a canoe 70 feet in length from a solid trunk, which had originally been 110 feet long, and of great thickness.
This man talked with Manuel, and money chinked between them.
You might wrap up the goods before you deliver 'm," the stranger said gruffly, and Manuel doubled a piece of stout rope around Buck's neck under the collar.