a structure on livestock farms for the collection and storage of manure. The type of manure pit (open ground pits; open pits dug into the ground, with the walls and bottom lined with water-resistant material; closed pits with lined walls and bottom and covers) is determined by the size of the farm, its location relative to populated areas, the climatic conditions, and the nature of the soil.
The simplest open manure pit for solid manure is a hard-surfaced area sunken to 0.5 m. Deeper pits are dug in the arid southern and southeastern regions; in such pits the decomposition of manure takes place with less loss of organic matter than in ground pits. In regions with long, cold winters, closed manure pits are built in the form of structures attached to livestock buildings, separate structures, or trenches set under the floor of livestock buildings. The capacity of a manure pit is determined on the basis of the head of livestock, the length of the stabling period, the efficiency of the mechanical equipment, and the degree of readiness of the manure for application to the soil (in the spring and fall, two to three months are required for the manure to ripen; in the winter it takes three to four months). Manure pits that provide temporary storage (at least three months) of manure near the livestock building, with subsequent hauling to the fields, are economical. This makes it possible to haul the bulk of the manure during the winter, when labor availability is highest. Manure pits on farms usually have a capacity of 25–40 percent of the winter manure output; field pits have a capacity of 60–75 percent.