maps that reflect the location and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forests. They are divided into current, reference, and educational types. The most important type is the current map, because such maps are needed in order to manage and plan the exploitation of forests.
In the USSR, current maps are compiled when the forests are established, and they are revised every ten to 15 years. On large-scale current forest maps (1:5, 000–1:50, 000)—maps of forestry sections and forested areas—the sections of the forests are characterized according to the predominant species and age. Maps that show in great detail the indexes of quality and yield, density, types of trees, and ranges of the various species form a special group. The dominant species are represented by a colored background, the age of the forest is shown by the intensity of the color, and other data are shown by additional symbols. The maps of forestry sections are equivalent to forestry station maps (1:100, 000–1:200, 000), which show the forested area with the forestry sections divided according to the dominant species and age groups. Oblast (or krai) forest maps (1:300, 000–1:1,000, 000) also reflect the organization of the forested land and forestry, as well as timber enterprises. Reference forest maps on a scale of less than 1:1,000, 000 reflect the forested areas of the entire country or of large regions subdivided according to the dominant species. Educational maps provide a generalized representation of forests subdivided according to species.
The first, hand-drawn forest maps were compiled in the 18th century; the first current maps, in the mid- 19th century. In the USSR, current maps of all the forests in the country were compiled by 1957. A reference map for European Russia was published in 1909 (1:1, 680, 000), and one for Asian Russia appeared in a comprehensive atlas of Asian Russia in 1914 (1:1, 260, 000). Twelve reference maps of several regions have been published since 1917. Many of them are included in general geographic and comprehensive regional atlases. A forest map of the USSR (1:2, 500, 000) showing the location of forests according to the 17 largest forest-forming species was published in 1955.
REFERENCESTsvetkov, M. A. Lesnye karty i metodika ikh sostavleniia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.
Shaposhnikova, L. A. Izobrazhenie lesa na kartakh. Moscow, 1957.
A. F. KRUCHININ