And the other reason for focusing on these ethnic groups is that they are believed to be related, and thus, sharing the same historical features as exemplified by the Great Zimbabwe monuments among the Shona and the Mapungubwe
monuments among the Venda of South Africa as Mapungubwe
pottery types for example are akin to those of early Zimbabwe (Davidson 1996).
3] at Kaitshaa, suggesting that the site's importance declined--or at least the relative exchange value of its salt and ivory in the wider regional economy--as the centralised chiefdoms at Bosutswe and Toutswe in eastern Botswana, and Schroda followed by K2 and Mapungubwe
in South Africa, rose to power.
Gauteng Department of Cooperative Governance, Traditional Affairs and Human Settlements MEC Jacob Mamabolo today formally launched the Gauteng City Region Water and Sanitation Forum at Mapungubwe
Conference Centre, Joburg CBD.
Institute for Strategic Reflection (MISTRA), South Africa
Now a UNESCO World Heritage Site and nature reserve, its recently built visitor and administration areas, called the Mapungubwe
Interpretation Centre, incorporates the natural contours of the landscape.
29,30] Following a vicious drought in about 1100 AD, the people of Mapungubwe
moved north of the Limpopo to found Great Zimbabwe.
In close cooperation with local communities, the trust works for the preservation of ecosystems and endangered species through research, environmental education, training and awareness-raising, notably in World Heritage sites such as Mapungubwe
and biosphere reserves such as Waterberg and Kruger to Canyons," the statement added.
The Order of Mapungubwe
is South Africa's highest honour.
West (1976:89) states that the history of the Venda began with the Mapungubwe
Kingdom in the 9 th century, the first ruler of which was King Shiriyadenga, who was succeeded by his eldest son.
The development sparked major controversy as the proposed mine is situated close to the ancient Mapungubwe
area, which is a Unesco world heritage site.
In November 2009, President Jacob Zuma bestowed upon him South Africa's highest honor, the Order of Mapungubwe
in Silver, for excellent achievements in medical science.
He refers to archaeological theories of 'more learned men' concerning a vaguely determined Semitic civilisation which had succumbed to the savagery of Africa--certainly the famous Zimbabwe ruins, Great Zimbabwe, Mapungubwe
, or Monomotapa.