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a complex of archaeological cultures in South Africa named after the cliff on the Limpopo River near Messina.

Mapungubwe was discovered by treasure hunters in 1929 and investigated between 1931 and 1934. Traces of a culture from the early Iron Age (c. eighth to 12th centuries) were found on the cliff and in its vicinity. The culture was characterized by modeled stamped pottery, small iron arrowheads, and iron hoes. The population engaged in primitive hoe farming and in stock raising and hunting. A fortification on the cliff, dating from approximately the 14th to 17th centuries, belonged to a culture of the developed Iron Age that had polished pottery, numerous objects made of iron, and gold ornaments. The population of this later stage also engaged in farming and stock raising. The late culture of Mapungubwe most likely was a variant of the Zimbabwe culture.


Fadeev, L. A. “Problema proiskhozhdeniia kul’tury Zimbabve.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1960, no. 2.
Fouché, L. Mapungubwe: Ancient Bantu Civilisation on the Limpopo. London, 1937.
References in periodicals archive ?
And the other reason for focusing on these ethnic groups is that they are believed to be related, and thus, sharing the same historical features as exemplified by the Great Zimbabwe monuments among the Shona and the Mapungubwe monuments among the Venda of South Africa as Mapungubwe pottery types for example are akin to those of early Zimbabwe (Davidson 1996).
3] at Kaitshaa, suggesting that the site's importance declined--or at least the relative exchange value of its salt and ivory in the wider regional economy--as the centralised chiefdoms at Bosutswe and Toutswe in eastern Botswana, and Schroda followed by K2 and Mapungubwe in South Africa, rose to power.
Gauteng Department of Cooperative Governance, Traditional Affairs and Human Settlements MEC Jacob Mamabolo today formally launched the Gauteng City Region Water and Sanitation Forum at Mapungubwe Conference Centre, Joburg CBD.
Mapungubwe Institute for Strategic Reflection (MISTRA), South Africa
29,30] Following a vicious drought in about 1100 AD, the people of Mapungubwe moved north of the Limpopo to found Great Zimbabwe.
In close cooperation with local communities, the trust works for the preservation of ecosystems and endangered species through research, environmental education, training and awareness-raising, notably in World Heritage sites such as Mapungubwe and biosphere reserves such as Waterberg and Kruger to Canyons," the statement added.
The Order of Mapungubwe is South Africa's highest honour.
West (1976:89) states that the history of the Venda began with the Mapungubwe Kingdom in the 9 th century, the first ruler of which was King Shiriyadenga, who was succeeded by his eldest son.
The development sparked major controversy as the proposed mine is situated close to the ancient Mapungubwe area, which is a Unesco world heritage site.
In November 2009, President Jacob Zuma bestowed upon him South Africa's highest honor, the Order of Mapungubwe in Silver, for excellent achievements in medical science.
He refers to archaeological theories of 'more learned men' concerning a vaguely determined Semitic civilisation which had succumbed to the savagery of Africa--certainly the famous Zimbabwe ruins, Great Zimbabwe, Mapungubwe, or Monomotapa.