Born July 2, 1847, in Paris; died Feb. 13, 1907, in Paris. French geologist and member of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1896). Professor at the mining school in Paris. Corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1899).
Bertrand introduced the theory of the periodic character of great tectonic movements and the basic periods of the earth’s folds (Huronian, Caledonian, Herzinian, and Alpine). He also established a series of laws for the development of magmatic processes. Bertrand’s observations in the Alps were the beginning of the theory of charriages.