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Duchamp, Marcel(märsĕl` düshäN`), 1887–1968, French painter, brother of Raymond Duchamp-VillonDuchamp-Villon, Raymond
, 1876–1918, French sculptor; brother of the artists Marcel Duchamp and Jacques Villon. From the tradition of Rodin he turned to cubism in 1912. He began to assemble machinelike forms with more than a touch of fantasy.
..... Click the link for more information. and half-brother of Jacques VillonVillon, Jacques,
1875–1963, French painter, brother of Marcel Duchamp and Raymond Duchamp-Villon. Villon became an exponent of cubism in 1911 and is best known for his refinement of the cubist style.
..... Click the link for more information. . Duchamp is noted for his cubist-futurist painting Nude Descending a Staircase, depicting continuous action with a series of overlapping figures; it was the cause of great controversy when exhibited in 1913 at the New York Armory ShowArmory Show,
international exhibition of modern art held in 1913 at the 69th-regiment armory in New York City. It was a sensational introduction of modern art into the United States. The estimated 1,600 works included paintings representing avant-garde movements in Europe.
..... Click the link for more information. . Duchamp invented ready-mades—commonplace objects—e.g., the urinal entitled Fountain, which he exhibited as works of art. In 1915 he was a co-founder of a DadaDada
, international nihilistic movement among European artists and writers that lasted from 1916 to 1922. Born of the widespread disillusionment engendered by World War I, it originated in Zürich with a 1916 party at the Cabaret Voltaire and the
..... Click the link for more information. group in New York. After 1920, Duchamp produced a series of elaborate nonfunctional machines. He emigrated to the United States in 1942. Many of his works, including the celebrated symbolic construction The Bride stripped bare by her Bachelors, even (1915–23), are at the Philadelphia Mus. of Art.
See M. Sanouillet and E. Peterson, ed., The Writings of Marcel Duchamp (1989); P. Cabanne, Dialogues with Marcel Duchamp (1978, repr. 1987) and C. Tomkins, The Afternoon Interviews (2013); catalog with study ed. by A. D'Harnoncourt and K. McShine (1973); biography by C. Tomkins (1996, repr. 2013); J. Masheck, Marcel Duchamp in Perspective (1973, repr. 2002); R. E. Kuenzli and F. M. Naumann, ed., Marcel Duchamp: Artist of the Century (1989); P. Hulten, ed., Marcel Duchamp: Work and Life (1993); J. Mink, Duchamp: 1887–1968: Art as Anti-Art (tr. 2000); H. Molderings, Duchamp and the Aesthetics of Chance (2010).