Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin

Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin

(fārdēnänd` ĕd`rälēn' mär`kōs), 1917–89, Philippine political leader. A lawyer and aide to Manuel RoxasRoxas, Manuel
, 1894–1948, Philippine statesman, b. Capiz, Panay. In 1921 he was elected to the Philippine house of representatives and in the following year he became speaker.
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 (1946–47), he was elected to congress in 1949, serving in the House of Representatives (1949–59) and Senate (1959–65). Formerly a Liberal, he broke with the party in 1965 and won the presidential election the same year as a nominee of the Nationalist party, defeating (1965) Diosdado MacapagalMacapagal, Diosdado
, 1911–97, president of the Philippines (1961–65). A forceful orator, Macapagal practiced law and later served in the Philippine diplomatic service and in the house of representatives (1949–56).
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. As president, Marcos maintained close ties with the United States. He launched (Aug., 1969) major military campaigns against Communist insurgents (see HukbalahapHukbalahap
(Huk) , Communist-led guerrilla movement in the Philippines. It developed during World War II as a guerrilla army to fight the Japanese; the name is a contraction of a Tagalog phrase meaning "People's Anti-Japanese Army.
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) and in Mindanao against Moro rebels (Muslims). He was reelected in 1969, and his second term was marked by increasing civil strife. In 1972, following a series of bombings in Manila, Marcos warned of imminent Communist takeover and declared martial law. In 1973, he assumed virtual dictatorial control with a new constitution. His regime's increasing isolation, fed by widespread corruption and the extravagance of his wife, Imelda, culminated with the assassination of Benigno Aquino (1983) on his return to the country. The opposition united behind Aquino's widow, Corazon AquinoAquino, Corazon
(Maria Corazon "Cory" Aquino) , 1933–2009, Philippine politician, president of the Philippines (1986–92), b. Maria Corazon Cojuangco. Her husband, Benigno Servillano "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr.
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, who ran against Marcos in the 1986 election. Marcos was declared the winner but was widely suspected of electoral fraud. Protests drove Marcos into exile, and Aquino became president. After substantial evidence of Marcos's corruption emerged, he and his wife, Imelda Remedios Visitación Romuáldez Marcos, 1929–, who had served as governor of Manila and minister of human settlements in his government, were indicted for embezzlement in the United States. Marcos died in Hawaii. After her husband's death Imelda Marcos was found innocent (1990) of embezzlement by a U.S. court. She was convicted of graft in a trial in the Philippines in 1993 but that was overturned on appeal in 1998, and other trials ended in acquittals or overturned guilty verdicts. In 2003, however, the government was awarded $650 million from frozen banks accounts in Switzerland that had belonged to Ferdinand Marcos, and the Philippines has since recovered several billion dollars in all. Imelda Marcos also has served in the Philippine legislature (1978–86, 1995–98, 2010–). Ferdinand Marcos's body was brought to the Philippines in 1993; he was buried in Manila's Cemetery of Heroes in 2016.

Bibliography

See R. P. Guzman and M. A. Reforma, Government and Politics in the Philippines (1988); R. L. Youngblood, Marcos against the Church (1990).

Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin

 

Born Sept. 11, 1917, in Sarrat, near the city of Laoag, Luzon Island. Philippine statesman and political figure; lawyer.

In World War II (1939-45), Marcos fought against the Japanese occupation forces. In November 1965 he was elected president of the Philippine Republic on the ticket of the Nationalista Party, which expressed the interests of the national bourgeoisie; he was elected for a second term in November 1969. In December 1972 he introduced a state of emergency. The Marcos government enacted several measures that decreased the dependence of Philippine foreign policy on the USA and several bourgeois democratic reforms aimed at weakening the position of the landholding oligarchy and strengthening the position of the national bourgeoisie. In 1973, Marcos disbanded the parliament and ratified a new constitution, but the reconvening of a parliament was postponed, which led to the concentration of all the power in the hands of the president. [15-1136-1; updated]