Lobby and Mardel
do not have constitutional free exercise rights as
Therefore, the Court held Hobby Lobby, Mardel
, and Conestoga Wood Specialists were given protection under RFRA.
is also organized as a for-profit corporation under
Though the Court opined that "protecting the free-exercise rights of corporations like Hobby Lobby, Conestoga, and Mardel
protects the religious liberty of the humans who own and control those companies," these commentators saw limited to no direct input available to shareholders.
B (discussing Mardel
and similar establishments that provide religious goods and services).
said: "For a lot of the countries in the region, they still look to the U.
, a British emergency doctor deployed by the WHO to help with the effort, "it was like a failure.
The court's ruling had one immediate impact: Hobby Lobby, as well as Mardel
and Conestoga Wood, smaller companies that filed suit with the craft business, will no longer
15) Judge Matheson wrote in his Hobby Lobby opinion, "[T]he majority asks, 'Where did Hobby Lobby and Mardel
lose their Free Exercise rights?
When the district courts started hearing these cases, neither the Supreme Court nor the Circuit Courts of Appeals had analyzed this specific issue: "Plaintiffs have not cited, and the court has not found, any case concluding that secular, for-profit corporations such as Hobby Lobby and Mardel
have a constitutional right to the free exercise of religion.
One of the cases was filed by arts-and-crafts retailer Hobby Lobby Stores Inc and Mardel
, a chain of Christian bookstores.
The company also operates Mardel
, a chain of 35 Christian bookstores with 400 employees.