Margaret of Austria


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Margaret of Austria,

1480–1530, Hapsburg princess, regent of the Netherlands; daughter of Emperor Maximilian IMaximilian I,
1459–1519, Holy Roman emperor and German king (1493–1519), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. As emperor, he aspired to restore forceful imperial leadership and inaugurate much-needed administrative reforms in the increasingly
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. She was betrothed (1483) to the dauphin of France, later King Charles VIIICharles VIII,
1470–98, king of France (1483–98), son and successor of Louis XI. He first reigned under the regency of his sister Anne de Beaujeu. After his marriage (1491) to Anne of Brittany, he freed himself from the influence of the regency and prepared to conquer
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, and was transferred to the guardianship of Louis XI of France (see Arras, Treaty ofArras, Treaty of.
1 Treaty of 1435, between King Charles VII of France and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy. Through it, France and Burgundy became reconciled. Philip deserted his English allies and recognized Charles as king of France.
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, (2)). After Charles renounced the treaty and married Anne of BrittanyAnne of Brittany,
1477–1514, queen of France as consort of Charles VIII from 1491 to 1498 and consort of Louis XII from 1499 until her death. The daughter of Duke Francis II of Brittany, she was heiress to his duchy.
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, Margaret was returned (1493) to her father. She was married in 1497 to John of Spain (d. 1497), son of Ferdinand and Isabella, and in 1501 to Philibert of Savoy (d. 1504). Made (1507) regent of the Netherlands and guardian of her nephew Charles (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles VCharles V,
1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
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), Margaret acted as intermediary between her father and his subjects in the Netherlands, negotiated a treaty of commerce with England favorable to the Flemish cloth interests, and played a role in the formation of the League of Cambrai (1508; see Cambrai, League ofCambrai, League of,
1508–10, alliance formed by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, King Louis XII of France, Pope Julius II, King Ferdinand V of Aragón, and several Italian city-states against the republic of Venice to check its territorial expansion.
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). After his majority (1515), Charles rebelled against her influence, but soon recognized her as one of his wisest advisers. After 1517 she was again regent intermittently until her death. She negotiated the Ladies' Peace with Louise of Savoy (1529; see Cambrai, Treaty ofCambrai, Treaty of,
called the Ladies' Peace,
treaty negotiated and signed in 1529 by Louise of Savoy, representing her son Francis I of France, and Margaret of Austria, representing her nephew Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
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).

Bibliography

See biography by J. de Iongh (tr. 1953).

Margaret of Austria

 

Born Jan. 10, 1480, in Brussels; died Dec. 1, 1530, in Mechelen. Hapsburg regent (for Maximilian I and then for Charles V) in the Netherlands from 1507 to 1530. Daughter of Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy.

Margaret of Austria carried out a policy of strengthening the power of the Hapsburgs; she fought against the political independence of the feudal aristocracy and the separatism of the towns.

References in periodicals archive ?
Fever also examines the musical court of his aunt, Margaret of Austria, who assumed the role of guardian and oversaw Charles's education while he stayed at her court in Mechelen after his father passed away when he was six years old.
Specialists in the art of Asia, Europe, or Latin America explore such topics as Chinese export porcelain for the Mexican colonial market, a foldout map of the Manila galleons and their trade network in 1610, the catafalque of Margaret of Austria and royal funerary rites in 17th-century Lima, sculptural replication in the early modern transatlantic world, and casta paintings and self-fashioning artists in New Spain.
In about 1525 he became court painter to Margaret of Austria, regent of the Netherlands at Mechelen and in 1535 accompanied the Emperor Charles V at the Conquest of Tunis (1535).
When Margaret of Austria, Regent of Flanders, sent Admiral Philip from her court at Malines (or Mechelen in Flemish) as an envoy to Pope Julius IT in Rome, he took Mabuse with him.
47) He was also an astrologer in the court of Margaret of Austria.
As a resident of Mechlin, he was undoubtedly aware of the stays and visits of Jean Molinet, Jean Lemaire de Belges, Juan Vives, Cornelius Agrippa, Erasmus, and Thomas More at the court of Margaret of Austria.
Catherine was one of a number of powerful women ruling, or helping to rule Europe in the 16th century, a group which included Mary Tudor, Elizabeth I, Mary, Queen of Scots and her mother Marie de Guise, regent of Scotland, Margaret of Austria, Margaret of Parma and Juana 'la Loca', ruler of Spain; a group branded as a 'monstrous regiment' by John Knox.
Another format, popular with the aristocracy, was the small diptych, which Dagmar Eichberger links, in "Devotional Objects in Book Format: Diptychs in the Collection of Margaret of Austria and her Family," in format and function to the book of hours.
Her three protagonists are the Empress Maria of Austria (1528-1603), daughter of Charles V, wife of the Emperor Maximilian II of Austria, and Philip III's aunt; Margaret of the Cross, her daughter; and Margaret of Austria (1584-1611) from the Styrian branch of the Habsburg family who married Philip III at age fifteen and died at age twenty-six after having borne him eight children, including the future Philip IV.
The 11 essays are from a 2005 academic colloquium held in conjunction with the exhibition Women of Distinction: Margaret of York and Margaret of Austria, in Mechelen, Belgium during 2005.
A Last Judgement by Barend van Orley, the court painter to Margaret of Austria, Charles v's aunt and the first of a sequence of Habsburg female governors of the Netherlands, was added in around 1520.
Maarten van Nieuwenhove asked that his coat of arms be added, and Margaret of Austria requested that her mother be given a more modest neckline.