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Maria Christina(märē`ä krēstē`nä), 1806–78, queen of Spain, daughter of Francis I of the Two Sicilies. The fourth wife of Ferdinand VIIFerdinand VII,
1784–1833, king of Spain (1808–33), son of Charles IV and María Luisa. Excluded from a role in the government, he became the center of intrigues against the chief minister Godoy and attempted to win the support of Napoleon I.
..... Click the link for more information. , she persuaded him to confirm (1833) the original revocation (1789) of the Salic lawSalic law
, rule of succession in certain royal and noble families of Europe, forbidding females and those descended in the female line to succeed to the titles or offices in the family.
..... Click the link for more information. to allow their daughter Isabella to succeed him. At the king's death (1833) Maria Christina became regent for Isabella IIIsabella II,
1830–1904, queen of Spain (1833–68), daughter of Ferdinand VII and of Maria Christina. Her uncle, Don Carlos, contested her succession under the Salic law, and thus the Carlist Wars began (see Carlists).
..... Click the link for more information. . In the Carlist Wars (see CarlistsCarlists,
partisans of Don Carlos (1788–1855) and his successors, who claimed the Spanish throne under the Salic law of succession, introduced (1713) by Philip V. The law (forced on Philip by the War of the Spanish Succession to avoid a union of the French and Spanish
..... Click the link for more information. ) that this succession provoked, she was aided by the liberals, but the frequent changes in the constitution alienated their support. The opposition of EsparteroEspartero, Baldomero, duque de la Victoria, conde de Luchana
, 1793–1879, Spanish general and statesman. He fought against the French in the Peninsular War (1808–14) and later against the revolutionists in South America.
..... Click the link for more information. forced her to resign the regency, and she went to France (1840). She returned after Espartero's overthrow (1843) and regained influence. She had to yield to Espartero again in 1854 but remained a powerful figure to the end of Isabella's turbulent reign in 1868.
Maria Christina(märē`ä krēstē`nä), 1858–1929, queen of Spain, consort of Alfonso XIIAlfonso XII,
1857–85, king of Spain (1874–85), son of Isabella II. He went into exile with his parents at the time of the revolt of the Carlists in 1868 and was educated in Austria and England.
..... Click the link for more information. . An Austrian archduchess, she was married to Alfonso in 1879. After his death, she was regent (1886–1902) for his posthumous son, Alfonso XIIIAlfonso XIII,
1886–1941, king of Spain (1886–1931), posthumous son and successor of Alfonso XII. His mother, Maria Christina (1858–1929), was regent until 1902.
..... Click the link for more information. , but took very little part in political affairs.