a picture representing the sea; a type of landscape.
In European art, marine pictures were first considered an independent branch of the landscape in the 17th century. Their primary task was to depict important historical events at sea and to reproduce in detail military vessels, for which the sea served mainly as a decorative background. The marine picture reached the height of its development in 17th-century Dutch painting and graphic art. Dutch artists, such as J. Porsellis, S. de Vlieger, H. Seghers, J. van de Cappelle, L. Bakhuyzen, and W. van de Velde, effectively conveyed the elemental nature of the sea and depicted the life of fishermen. Their works include gala scenes in which ships and boats with human figures occupy center stage and broad, majestic expanses of the sea are revealed.
The greatest 18th- and 19th-century marine painters and graphic artists included C. J. Vernet in France, Katsushika Hokusai in Japan, J. M. Turner in England, H. W. Mesdag in Holland, and I. K. Aivazovskii and A. P. Bogoliubov in Russia. In Soviet times, marine pictures have been painted by V. V. Meshkov, I. F. Titov, and E. Kalnyn’.