sponge

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sponge,

common name for members of the aquatic animal phylum PoriferaPorifera
[Lat.,=pore bearer], animal phylum consisting of the organisms commonly called sponges. It is the only phylum of the animal subkingdom Parazoa and represents the least evolutionarily advanced group of the animal kingdom.
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, and for the dried, processed skeletons of certain species used to hold water. Over 4,500 living species are known; they are found throughout the world, especially in shallow temperate waters. All are marine except the members of six freshwater families.

Adult sponges are sessile, attaching themselves to rocks, coral, shells, and other substrates. They show so little movement that until the 18th cent. naturalists considered them plants. Most adults are colonial. Sexual reproduction gives rise to a free-swimming larva, which soon settles on a suitable substrate and develops into the adult form. Asexual reproduction also occurs. The individual sponge is saclike in construction; water is drawn into its central cavity through many tiny holes in the body wall and expelled through a large opening at the top of the body. Hard materials of various kinds, depending on the type of sponge, are imbedded in the body wall, forming a skeleton. A colony consists of a mass of many such individuals.

Solitary sponges and colonies range in diameter from about 1-2 in. to 5 ft (1–150 cm) and vary greatly in shape. Some are branched, some more or less globular, and some are thin encrustations on rocks and pilings. Brilliantly colored sponges are common. Bath sponges are the skeletons of certain colonial sponges. These skeletons are composed of a fibrous meshwork of spongin, a material related to horn, and owe their absorbent properties to the fineness of the mesh.

Sponges have been used to hold liquid since ancient times. The ancient Greeks used them for bathing and scrubbing, and Roman soldiers used them for drinking. Commercial sponges, species of the genera Spongia and Hippospongia, are harvested principally in the Mediterranean and Caribbean seas and off the Florida coast. They are brought up by divers in deep water, or raked in with long-handled forks in shallow water. They are left in water until the living tissue rots away; the skeletons are then cleaned and dried and sometimes bleached. Sponge fishing has declined in recent decades due to the use of synthetic sponges and to a decline in the population of commercially valuable natural sponges. The block-shaped sponges now commonly sold are the synthetic product. Dried natural sponges are light gray or brown and irregular in shape.

sponge

[spənj]
(chemical engineering)
Wood shavings coated with iron oxide and used as a catalyst in processes for removing hydrogen sulfide from industrial gases.
(invertebrate zoology)
The common name for members of the phylum Porifera.

sponge

1. any multicellular typically marine animal of the phylum Porifera, usually occurring in complex sessile colonies in which the porous body is supported by a fibrous, calcareous, or siliceous skeletal framework
2. a piece of the light porous highly absorbent elastic skeleton of certain sponges, used in bathing, cleaning, etc.
3. any of a number of light porous elastic materials resembling a sponge
4. porous metal produced by electrolysis or by reducing a metal compound without fusion or sintering and capable of absorbing large quantities of gas

sponge

A special case of a Unix filter that reads its entire input before writing any output; the canonical example is a sort utility. Unlike most filters, a sponge can conveniently overwrite the input file with the output data stream. If a file system has file versioning (as ITS did and VMS does now) the sponge/filter distinction loses its usefulness, because directing filter output would just write a new version.

See also slurp.
References in periodicals archive ?
The conceptual translations of complete cDNA containing the MIP domain (identified using the Pfam annotations) from the eight transcriptomes of marine sponges from Riesgo et al.
According to Prado et al, the extracts from marine sponges and ascidians from the Brazilian coast are toxic against T47D cells.
Diversity of fungal isolates from three Hawaiian marine sponges.
Several other secondary metabolites are due to microbial symbionts associated with marine sponges (e.
Marie-Lise, Hyrtiazepine, an Azepino-indole-Type Alkaloid from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios erectus, J.
All information obtained was compared to previous sponge studies in the area and the latest literature on systematics and taxonomy of marine sponges.
Now researchers who study biofilms that cohabitate with marine sponges have discovered a quorum-sensing signal that controls the formation of the flagellum, a corkscrew-like appendage that rotates and allows bacteria to swim away from a biofilm.
During the course we examined the phototactic behavior of larvae from the marine sponge Xestospongia proxima.
Although the synthetic compound was useful for many studies, we wanted to know what substance would normally cause the NK T cells to produce an immune response, and it was not believable that marine sponges normally stimulate our immune system," said Dr.
The only other organisms known to secrete chemicals like pederin are a group of marine sponges of the genus, Mycale.
Antifouling agents from marine sponge Lissodendoryx isodictyalis Carter.
Cathepsin, a major protease of the marine sponge Geodia cydonium: purification of the enzyme and molecular cloning of cDNA.

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