Mariner


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Mariner

 

the name of a series of American unmanned space probes designed to investigate Venus and Mars, and also of their development and launch program (see Tables la and Ib). Work on the Mariner program began in 1960. The first probes were built for fly-bys and were basically of the same type, with the exception of Mariners 1 and 2, which were designed on the basis of previously developed Ranger lunar units. The Mariner stations carried radioelectronic equipment, a programming and timing device, an attitude-stabilization system, a power unit, a temperature-control system, a vernier engine, and television cameras (with the exception of Mariners 1 and 2).

Numerous scientific instruments were installed in the Mariners: a magnetometer to measure magnetic field intensity, an ionization chamber to study cosmic rays, a solar-plasma detector to record protons, and a meteoric-particle detector to determine the momentum of meteoric particles and study their distribution near the earth (Mariners 1-5). The set of radiation detectors consisted of three Geiger counters, an ultraviolet photometer, and a sounding receiver. Mariners 8 and 9 were designed on the basis of the Mariner 6 and 7 probes, and they also carried an ultraviolet spectrometer for determining the gaseous composition of the atmosphere and ionosphere (in particular, ozone distribution) and for investigating the hydrogen corona, and an infrared spectrometer for determining the temperature of the lower layers of the atmosphere, studying the distribution of water vapor, recording substances present in the atmosphere in small quantities, and studying the surface of the planet. An infrared radiometer was used to determine thermal inertia (the rate of cooling and heating) and the composition of the surface, to search for thermal anomalies, and to obtain data used in analyzing television images of the surfaces of the planets. Mariners 8 and 9 also carried radio sounding units operating on various frequencies, a set of sensors (a “telescope”) for recording cosmic rays, and an X-ray detector.

The boosters for the Mariner probes were the Atlas-Agena B (Mariners 1 and 2), Atlas-Agena D (Mariners 3-5) and Atlas-Centaur (Mariners 6-10).

G. A. NAZAROV

References in classic literature ?
Nothing further passed between the mariner and Hester Prynne.
I was so rejoiced to have at last got rid of this uncanny old man that I ran leaping and bounding down to the sea shore, where, by the greatest good luck, I met with some mariners who had anchored off the island to enjoy the delicious fruits, and to renew their supply of water.
I went over and read, "Edward Spencelagh, master mariner, murdered by pirates off the coast of Andres, April, 1854, age 30.
But Phileas Fogg was a bold mariner, and knew how to maintain headway against the sea; and he kept on his course, without even decreasing his steam.
And without listening to Villefort he arose, and followed Valentine, who was running down-stairs with the joy of a shipwrecked mariner who finds a rock to cling to.
Among the rest, a mariner affirmed, that, many years before, in a distant country, he had heard a rumor about a white bull, which came swimming across the sea with a child on his back, dressed up in flowers that were blighted by the sea water.
Aiken, an able mariner, destined to command the schooner intended for the coasting trade, and ordered him, together with John Coles, sail- maker, Stephen Weekes, armorer, and two Sandwich Islanders, to proceed ahead and take soundings, while the ship should follow under easy sail.
His mother suffered agonies whenever he got his feet wet; but this mariner did not seem excited.
All very fine, Drowne; all very fine," answered the mariner.
He evidently regarded the innkeeper as in some singular way an authority on motor cars; as being deep in the secrets of the mechanism, management, and mismanagement of motor cars; holding the man all the time with a glittering eye like the Ancient Mariner.
Only this particular mariner doesn't need any help.
That, surely, was the "Ancient Mariner," sitting back and apart with washed eyes of such palest blue that they seemed a faded white.