Sea of Marmara

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Related to Marmara Sea: Marmara Denizi, Black Sea, Dardanelles

Marmara, Sea of,


Sea of Marmora,

c.4,430 sq mi (11,474 sq km), NW Turkey, between Europe in the north and Asia in the south. The Sea of Marmara, c.175 mi (280 km) long and 50 mi (80 km) wide, is connected on the east with the Black Sea through the Bosporus and on the west with the Aegean Sea (part of the Mediterranean Sea) through the Dardanelles. İstanbul (Constantinople) is located at the entrance of the Bosporus into the Sea of Marmara. The sea has no strong currents and the tidal range is minimal. In ancient times the sea was known as Propontis [Gr.,=fore-sea] from its position relative to the Black Sea. Its modern name is derived from the small island of Marmara or Marmora (ancient Proconnesus), famous for its extensive marble quarries.

Marmara, Sea of


a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between Europe and Asia Minor. Its name is derived from an island in the sea noted for its rich deposits of white marble; its ancient Greek name was Propontis (from pro, “in front” and pontos, “sea”).

In the northeast the sea is connected with the Black Sea through the Bosporus, and in the southwest it is linked with the Aegean Sea through the Dardanelles. It is 280 km long, has a maximum width of 80 km, and covers an area of 11, 472 sq km. Its average volume is 4, 000 cu km, and its maximum depth is 1, 355 m. The sea was formed as a result of major faults in the earth’s crust, which separated the continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The shores are predominantly mountainous, becoming very rugged in the south and east; along its northern coast are numerous submerged reefs. The major islands are Marmara Island and the Princes Islands. The sea does not freeze over; the surface temperature is 9°C in winter and up to 29°C in summer. The hydrological conditions are basically determined by the exchange of water from the Black and Aegean seas through the straits. Salinity on the surface is up to 26 parts per thousand. The sea’s flora and fauna are related to Mediterranean species. Mackerel and other fish are caught in the sea, and it is an important route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The sea has been studied chiefly by the Russian scientists S. O. Makarov and I. B. Shpindler.


Makarov, S. O. Ob obmene vod Chemogo i Sredizemnogo morel St. Petersburg, 1885.
Shpindler, I. B. Materialy po gidrologii Mramomogo moria, sobrannye ν ekspeditsii 1894 na turetskom parokhode “Selianik.” St. Petersburg, 1896.
References in periodicals archive ?
Attacks and conquests in the waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the Marmara Sea showed that the 'Abbasid navy was a major power of that time.
Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening in Kocaeli, Turkey: a crowded industrial center on the north coast of Marmara Sea.
The 920 MW Bandirma Power Plant is currently being constructed on the Marmara Sea coast for Enerjisa Enerji Uretim A.
After an introduction and regional overview, 12 studies look at such aspects as the structural evolution of Andros in the Greek Cyclades as a key to the behavior of a flat detachment within an extending continental crust, geodetic constraints on kinematics of southwestern Bulgaria and GPS and leveling data, and late Quaternary sedimentation and tectonics in the submarine Sarkoy Canyon in the western Marmara Sea off Turkey.
According to Professor Ozdogan, the Yenikapi settlement dates from between 6400 BC and 5800 BC, long before the Bosphorus Strait had formed and in the days when the Marmara Sea was a small, inland lake.
Twenty-seven crew and 68 passengers were on board the roll-on-roll-off ferry when it sank late on Sunday shortly after setting off from the port town of Bandirma, on the southern shore of the Marmara Sea, for Istanbul, the agency said in a statement.
This final phase of the system's deployment included the addition of three new remote sensor sites to provide coverage of the Marmara Sea and entrance to the Canakkale Straits.
Located in the Istanbul Asian side within the junction of main highways, it is also in close proximity to the proposed metro line that will join the rail tube tunnel under the Marmara Sea connecting Asia to Europe.
Planes from the municipality filled their hulls with six tons of water at a time from the nearby Marmara Sea and made dozens of trips to drop it on the blaze, flying low and at an angle to avoid a Turkish Airlines building nearby before dumping the sea water on the fire.
2 and its epicentre was in the Marmara Sea just off Istanbul, Ahmet Mete Isikara, head of the Istanbul-based Kandilli observatory, said.
He was talking at the end of a seven-day period which saw one Turkish-registered tanker explode in the Marmara Sea, just off Istanbul, and three other vessels run aground in the Bosphorus - the narrow 17-mile-long channel that separates Europe from Asia and runs right through the heart of Istanbul, a city of over 10 million people.